Part 1: Disaster preparedness and prevention policy

Section 1: Disaster prevention responsibilities and procedures

1.1 Introduction

The main responsibilities of the Collection Emergency Coordinator, Collections Disaster Coordinator and Preservation Services staff in preventing disasters are:

  • to know the main areas of risk and to take steps to minimise the risk or detect any problems as early as possible
  • to ensure that staff are trained and prepared to play a positive role in preventing disasters
  • to know the collections well
  • to know the collection storage areas well
  • to ensure good lines of communication with staff working in those areas
  • to ensure good lines of communication with other key staff likely to be involved in disaster prevention, response and recovery

The rest of this section presents the procedures the Collection Emergency Coordinator, Collections Disaster Coordinator, Collection Managers and Preservation Services staff will follow to meet these responsibilities.

1.2 Collection Area Checks for Potential Disaster

Disaster may be prevented in some instances if warning signs are detected and dealt with early. Apart from being generally aware of the environment during regular duties, regular checks of the Library's collection storage areas will be conducted.

The building air conditioning contractor checks all plant rooms on a weekly basis.

The Library's pest control contractor inspects the building on a quarterly basis as part of an integrated pest management strategy.

Preservation Services staff undertaking environmental monitoring will look for evidence of potential problems, using the checklist in Section 1.3. Any problems will be reported to Building and Security Services Help Desk.

Preservation Services, Stacks and Special Collections areas in particular, will be trained in recognising potential disaster problems including the need to check Collection areas thoroughly in and after periods of heavy or continuous rain and during building works.

1.3 Disaster Prevention Checklist: Preservation Services Staff

As you walk around the building check for the following (please note: the warehouse should also be checked every six months) and report problems to the Building and Security Services Help Desk:

  • Evidence of water
    • dripping from sprinkler heads, pipes, building expansion joints, drip / drainage trays
    • water anywhere
    • sound of water dripping
    • water stains on floor, walls, ceilings, light fittings, etc
    • high humidity
    • damp musty smell
    • mould
    • used Emergency Supply Cabinets
  • Fire hazards
    • staff and/or visitors smoking in the Library
    • accumulation of litter, stores or other items in fire stairs and tunnels
    • faulty electrical wiring or appliance
    • items blocking access to exits, egress, fire protection appliances and alarms
    • any missing or discharged extinguishes or extinguishes positioned on floors
    • any leakages or flammable gases or liquids, and
    • any excessive collection of rubbish, dust or spill of liquids
  • Evidence of pests
    • any pests found may be an indication of more in hiding
    • damage, nests, droppings / frass, or remains
    • smell
    • damage to collections

1.4 Special Action for Wet Weather

Checks of storage areas in wet weather

Checks for water leaks in storage areas are to be made during and up to a week after any period of heavy or continuous rainfall. Preservation Staff are rostered each month to carry out checks. Stack and Special Collections staff working in the storage areas are also responsible for making the checks. The Collections Disaster Coordinator and Preservation Services Staff will coordinate checks through phone and personal contact.

If any problems are found Building and Security Services Help Deks are to be advised immediately.

During periods of rain, particularly heavy or continuous rain or hail storms, Stack supervisors and Collection Managers listed in section 1.6 will check for leaks and advise Building and Security Services Branch and the Collection Disaster Coordinator of any problems.

1.5 Leakage Risk Sites

** omitted **

1.6 Wet Weather Staff Contact List

** omitted **

During Working Hours

** omitted **

After Hours

When leaving the building during wet weather, Preservation staff will either contact LG2 Security or call in on the way out and ask for regular patrols to be made of risk areas to check for leaks.

Security Guards are provided with a 2-way radio or mobile to make them contactable during building patrols

1.7 Disaster Prevention Checks During Building Works

Work on the Library building presents an added risk of disaster, requiring special precautions by Building and Security Services Branch, the Collection Emergency Coordinator, the Collections Disaster Coordinator, Preservation Services Staff, relevant Collection Manager and/or Director of Exhibitions and the contractor.

It is the responsibility of the Building Manager, Building and Security Services Branch to ensure that any areas of potential risk and necessary precautions are identified and discussed with contractors as early as possible. Building and Security Services Branch, the Collection Emergency Coordinator, the Collection Disaster Coordinator, the Collection Manager and the Director of Exhibitions, where appropriate, are required to include preproject contingency planning in the initial project-planning phase.

When building work is commenced, Building and Security Services Branch, the Collection Emergency Coordinator, the Collection Disaster Coordinator and the relevant Collection Manager and/or Director of Exhibitions will meet as appropriate to monitor the progress of the building work in the collection areas and take any action that is deemed necessary.

It is the responsibility of the Building Manager, Building and Security Services Branch to inform the Collections Emergency Coordinator, the Collections Disaster Coordinator, Preservation Services and the Collection Manager and/or Director of Exhibitions of any contract work being carried out which may present an increased risk of disaster (water, fire, dust, structural failure) and to negotiate a regime of checking the work site to ensure:

  • all collections are covered with ample plastic sheeting to protect them from dirt and water at all times during building works
  • no collection material is placed on the floor or moved unnecessarily
  • dust produced by the work site is kept to a minimum and/or fully extracted away from collection areas
  • risk to the collections is at its absolute minimum. If necessary collections may be moved to an agreed location to minimise risk.
  • contractors are aware of emergency supplies, their locations and when they are to be used
  • contractors are aware of their responsibilities when working near collections
  • contractors know whom to contact in an emergency involving collection material

Section 2: Disaster Preparedness: Personnel

2.1 Introduction

The Collections Disaster Coordinator and Preservation Services Staff are responsible for coordinating collection disaster preparedness. On a daily basis this involves close contact with Building and Security Services, Security and Collection Managers. The principle objectives of disaster preparedness are:

to ensure that appropriate equipment and materials are available to deal with any likely emergency

  • to know the main areas of risk and to take steps to minimise the risk or detect any problems as early as possible
  • to ensure Library staff are trained and prepared to take an appropriate role in any disaster reaction, response and recovery
  • to know the collections well
  • to know the collection storage areas well
  • to ensure good lines of communication with staff working in those areas, especially where the Exhibition Gallery is concerned.
  • to ensure good lines of communication with other key staff likely to be involved in disaster prevention, response and recovery

To ensure adequate collections disaster preparedness, a disaster response structure defining key personnel and groups has been created. The rest of this section presents the structure and responsibilities of key personnel. 

2.2 Collection Disaster Response Structure

The National Library's collection disaster response structure consists of the following main groups and positions:

 

  • Collections Emergency Coordinator
  • Collections Disaster Coordinator
  • Emergency Planning Committee (EPC)
  • Collection Managers
  • Director and Registrar of Exhibitions
  • Preservation Services Staff
  • Salvage Teams: Library staff trained in disaster response and recovery

The Collections Disaster Chain of command structure is listed in Section 2.4.

2.2.1 Collections Emergency Coordinator

The Collections Emergency Coordinator is a member of the EPC and provides advice and information on the collections, including details of heritage and on loan material and maintains liaison at management level with other collecting institutions.

The Collections Emergency Coordinator ensures planning for storage of the collections incorporates disaster prevention mechanisms.

This person also provides advice on disaster prevention and recovery of the collections and prepares reports on disaster / emergencies as they relate to the collection.

2.2.2 Collections Disaster Coordinator

The Collections Disaster Coordinator is a member of the EPC and has responsibility for collection related disaster prevention, preparedness and response. The Collections Disaster Coordinator is an officer based in Preservation Services who has delegated authority from the Director, Preservation Services, to oversee the Library's routine collections disaster prevention and preparedness activities and all response and recovery activities during collection related emergencies.

The Collections Disaster Coordinator is supported by a Deputy Collections Disaster Coordinator, also from Preservation Services.

2.2.3 Emergency Planning Committee (EPC)

The EPC has overall responsibility for disaster prevention, preparedness, response and review. The role and functions of EPC are listed in the Preface of the NLA Counter Emergency Plan. The EPC structure and membership is listed in Section 2.3.

2.2.4 Collection Manager

Collection managers, have responsibility under the EPC for assessing the needs of the collections in disaster situations, deciding priorities, and assisting in development of short and long term plans for recovery. The membership, role and functions of collection managers, are listed in section 2.5.

2.2.5 Director of Exhibitions / Registrar

The Director of Exhibitions and Registrar have responsibility under the EPC for assessing the needs of collections in disaster situations particular pertaining to material on loan from other institutions for exhibitions.

In consultation with lending institutions decide priorities and assist with short term plans for recovery and return of material.

The membership, role and functions of the Director of Exhibitions and Registrar are listed in section 2.5.

2.2.6 Salvage Teams

During major disasters affecting collections, Library staff may be asked to volunteer to work in salvage teams. These teams salvage disaster affected collection material. Each team will be briefed by a team coordinator who is either a collection manager or a Preservation Services staff member, and will consist of 5 members who have received disaster training.

2.2.7 Preservation Services Staff

Preservation Services staff will be expected to provide support to the Collections Disaster Coordinator as indicated in the Collection Disaster Plan Part 2, Disaster Actions. Where the Collections Disaster Coordinator is unavailable, the Deputy Collections Disaster Coordinator or Preservation Services officers are required to assume coordination responsibility.

2.3 Emergency Planning Committee Structure and Membership

Appointments–Emergency Planning Committee

NamePosition
 Director – General
 Emergency Coordinator 
ADG Corporate Services
 Deputy Emergency Coordinator 
Director Building & Security Services
 Resource Management Emergency Coordinator 
Director Employment Relations
 Building Services Emergency Coordinator 
Building Manager
 Security Services Emergency Coordinator
Manager Security Services
 House Warden 
Security Operations Officer
 Collections Emergency Coordinator 
Director Preservation
 Collections Disaster Coordinator 
Collection Preservation Manager
 IT Emergency Coordinator 
ADG Information Technology
 Deputy IT Emergency Coordinator
Director Business Systems Support
 Collection Mgt. Business Continuity Coordinator 
ADG Collections Management
 Reader Services Emergency Coordinator 
ADG Aust. Collections and Reader Services
 Resource Sharing Business Continuity Coordinator 
ADG Resource Sharing
 Public Programs Business Continuity Coordinator 
ADG Public Programs
 

Security Services Emergency Coordinator 
Manager Security Services

 Communications Emergency Coordinator 
Director Communications and Marketing
 Exhibitions Emergency Coordinator
Registrar Exhibitions
 EPC Secretary 
Risk Manager

Each of the members of the EPC has a deputy. Deputies must be kept informed of alterations in procedures at all times.

2.4 Collection Disaster Chain of Command Structure - Under EPC Direction

  • Collection Emergency Coordinator

Director Preservation Services Branch

  • Collection Disaster Coordinator

Manager, Collection Preservation

  • Collection Managers

Managers from all Collection areas

  • Director and Registrar of Exhibitions
  • Preservation Services

Conservators and trained staff in collection salvage

  • Salvage Teams

Library staff trained in disaster response and recovery

2.5 Collection Managers: Role and Functions.

The role of the Collection Managers is to advise the Collections Disaster Coordinator and the EPC on salvage and recovery priorities. The Collection Managers also assist in monitoring and coordinating salvage and recovery operations under the direction of the Collections Disaster Coordinator and the EPC.

Collection areas with specific managers include: Maps, Manuscripts, Pictures, Oral History, Music, Asian Collections and Newspapers.

Information, Technical and Stack Services managers are responsible for deposit, rare and general collection materials including Australian rare printed materials, overseas rare books, ephemera and multimedia collections.

Director of Exhibitions and/or Registrar is to advise the Collections Disaster Coordinator and the EPC on salvage and recovery priorities with regard to Exhibition material on loan to the National Library.

Contact names and numbers are listed in the Collection Disaster Plan Part 2, Disaster Actions, Appendix 1.

2.6 Salvage Teams: Roles and Functions

Collection Managers are responsible for maintaining a pool of staff trained in disaster response and recovery in their section

In a disaster, library staff may be asked to volunteer for salvage work by the Collections Disaster Coordinator. When needed, teams will be asked to assemble for briefing and direction to commence salvage operations.

Section 3: Emergency supplies and maintenance

3.1 Local Emergency Stores - Use and Maintenance

Local Emergency Stores are yellow cabinets and wheelie bins that house equipment and supplies to help staff stabilise minor emergencies. The equipment and supplies can be used by all library staff at any time to respond to emergencies affecting collections and work areas.

Wheelie bins supplement cabinets and are placed in areas which are long distances from cabinets and/or areas prone to water leaks.

The Collections Disaster Coordinator and Preservation Services staff are responsible for ensuring all Local Emergency stores are correctly stocked and maintained at all times. This is done through a schedule of monthly checks.

Preservation Services staff are also responsible for checking that stores cabinets are locked, stocked, and replenished after any emergency. If this is not done, staff may not find what they need in an emergency, and may waste time which could have been spent protecting the collections.

Location

Cabinets are located in the back lift lobbies of LG2, LG1, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and the 4th floors. The Ground floor store is a specially identified cupboard.

Other cabinets are housed in the loading bay and at both Warehouses.

Wheelie bins are located on the 2nd floor behind the front lifts, 3rd floor work area, LG1 work areas.

Access

The cabinets are secured with breakable ceramic tube locks and are accessible for routine maintenance by a key kept in Preservation Services and Security.

Maintenance Schedule - Collections Disaster Coordinator / Preservation Staff

Monthly check: check cabinets and bins monthly, using the Local Emergency Store Contents Checklist. Where necessary, replenish supplies from Stores, or by arrangement with Security, as soon as possible. Add any Disaster Plan updates. Checklists are maintained on file in Preservation Services.

Post emergency check: check cabinets and bins after any emergency. When a cabinet or bin has been used, replenish stocks, replace equipment and re-secure the cabinet immediately following completion of the emergency response.

Renew torch batteries every 12 months.

CO2 Fire Extinguishers are checked and maintained in accordance with Australian Standards.

3.2 Local Emergency Stores : Cabinet Contents Checklist

Date:Checked by:Store:
Condition of lock:Organisation of store:

 

Q'tyMaterialUseQ'ty on HandCond
2Bins – plasticCatching water  
1BroomCleaning up, moving water  
2Buckets - 10 litreCatching water, cleaning up  
1Dust pan & brushCleaning up  
1Emergency Action InformationReference  
1Extension leadFlexible power source  
1Fire blanketFire fighting  
1Fire extinguisher - CO2(side)Fighting small fire  
1 packGarbage bags - 20 packCarrying material  
3 pairsGloves rubberHealth and safety  
2Marker pensMarking transport boxes  
4 rollsPacking tapeAdhering sheeting  
6PencilsRecording material movements  
40Plastic bagsTransporting wet material  
1 rollPlastic sheeting clearCovering material  
1Power boardFlexible power source  
1 pairScissorsCut plastic, tape  
1Squeeze mopCleaning up  
1Torch & batteriesDuring blackouts  
1Tube - long plastic (top or side)Directing minor water leaks  
1Utility knife & bladesCutting plastic, tape  
6Wettex wipersCleaning up  
1Writing pad & clipboardRecording material movements  

 

Comments:

 

Missing / broken / non-working items replaced:

 

3.3 Local Emergency Stores : Wheelie Bin Contents Checklist

Date:Checked by:Store:
Condition of lock:Organisation of store:

 

Q'tyMaterialUseQ'ty on HandCond
1Bins - plasticCatching water  
2Buckets - 10 litreCatching water, cleaning up  
3 pairsGloves - rubberHealth and safety  
1 rollPacking tapeAdhering sheeting  
1 rollPlastic sheeting - clearCovering material  
1 pairScissorsCut plastic, tape  
6Wettex wipersCleaning up  
1Emergency Action InstructionsReference  

 

Comments:

 

Missing / broken / non-working items replaced:
 

3.4 Central Emergency Store - Use and Maintenance

The Central Emergency Store is a room off the service yard that contains the Library's equipment and supplies reserved for response to all emergencies where protection, stabilisation, clean up and recovery are required. Its purpose is to hold a reserve stock of equipment and materials to support the Local Emergency Stores (LES), and as a source of supply in circumstances where the LES are unavailable and/or insufficient.

Preservation Services staff are responsible for ensuring the Central Emergency Store is correctly stocked and maintained at all times.

Preservation Services staff are also responsible for checking that the Store is locked, stocked, and replenished after any emergency in which it has been used.

Location

The Central Emergency Store is located in the service yard. Keys are held by Security and Preservation Services.

Access

The Store is kept locked: keys are kept by Preservation Services and Security.

Maintenance Schedule

Six-monthly check: check store every 6 months, using the Central Emergency Store Contents Checklist. Where necessary, replenish supplies from Stores, or by arrangement with Security, as soon as possible. Add any Disaster Plan updates. Checklists are maintained on file in Preservation Services.

Post emergency check: check Store after any emergency in which it has been used. If necessary replenish stocks, check and replace equipment and re-secure the Store immediately following completion of the emergency response.

Renew batteries for torches and any other battery-operated equipment every 12 months.

Funding

Supplies, equipment and equipment repairs are funded from various equipment maintenance votes controlled by Building and Security Services Branch and Security.

3.5 Central Emergency Store Contents Checklist

 

Date:Checked by:
Organisation of store:

 

Q'tyMaterial (per bin)UseQ'ty on HandCond


2400 
1000 
800 
800
Bags - Plastic (polyethylene) 
405x600 
300x500 
250x400 
520x900
Transporting wet material  
 Batteries size D 
Batteries size C
Spare for torches 
Spare for thermohygrographs
  
10Bins plasticCatching water  

14 
11
Blotting Paper 135gsm 
445x570x250 pk 
445x390x250 pk
Drying material  






1
Boots, rubber 
Size 5 pr 
Size 6 pr 
Size 7 pr 
Size 8 pr 
Size 9 pr 
Size 10 pr
Health and safety  
1900Boxes - cardboard 750x200Transporting material  
1BroomCleaning up/moving water  
3Broom strawCleaning up/ moving water  
1Buckets 10 litreCatching water/cleaning up  
1 boxChalk whiteLabelling boxes  
5Clip boardsRecord keeping  
375Cloth, dusting chux 60x34Cleaning up  
17Coats laboratory (Tyvek)Health and safety  
 Container - plastic 20 litreCatching/moving water  
9Container - plastic 50 litreCatching/moving water  
40Crates - collapsible plasticTransporting material  
5DehumidifierReducing moisture in air  
2Electric fan - small
- large
Air circulation, drying  
2Extension lead 25mFlexible power source  
12600Freezer bags 660x405Packaging wet material  
18Garbage bags 6 packPackaging  



4
Gloves - rubber - size 6
- size 7
- size 8
- med
Health and safety  
7Hammer clawGeneral use  
10Hard hatHealth and safety  
1Hose and fittings 50mCleaning up  
3Hose - high pressure air 30mCleaning up  
 Hose - vacuum extensionUse near magnetic media  
 Humidifier (see vaporiser)Increasing air moisture  
3Knife - utility and bladesCutting plastic, tape  
10Labels adhesive 250 roll 
Labels tie on
Identifying boxes and bags  
10Marker pens blackMarking boxes and bags  
10 2Mask - dust (Gerson) 20 pack 
Mask respirator 
Mask - respirator, cartridges
Health and Safety  
12Mats - S-entry - bases
- inserts
Health and Safety  
9Mop - squeeze - 30 cm
- 22 cm
   


11
Newsprint - cut sheets 
250x330 packs of 500 
600x840 packs of 500
Drying books  


8
Overalls - disposable (Tyvek) 
- Large 
-Medium
Health and Safety  
20Packing tape rollAdhering plastic sheeting  
62Pens ballpointRecording material movement  
40Pencils HBRecording material movement  
 Phone cordlessGeneral emergency use  
 Plan - Collection Disaster
Plan - Counter emergency
   
5Plastic sheeting clear 100m rollCovering material  
3Power boardsFlexible power source  
15ScissorsCutting plastic, tape  
 Sign: Do not enter 
Sign: Danger 
Sign: Harzard warning
Health and Safety  
6Sponge wettexCleaning up  
2Squeegee 400mm 
Squeegee 600mm
Moving water  

1

Step ladder 1.0m 
Step ladder 1.8m

General use  
6ThermohygrographsMonitoring environment  
2Torches fluoroDuring blackouts  
1Towelling paper rollDrying books  
3TrolleysTransporting material  
9Tube - fluorescent for torchesSpare tubes  
2Vacuum cleaners ElectroluxCleaning up  
1Vacuum cleaner - wet/dryCleaning up/water removal  
2Vaporisers (domestic)Increasing moisture in air  

9
Water alert indicators 
Water hazard indicators
Water detection  

30
Whiteboard 
Whiteboard markers (black)
General use  
6Writing pads A4Recording material movements  
2Reel fishing lineDrying pamphlets, film  
10Pairs cotton glovesHealth and Safety  

 

Comments:

 

Missing / broken / non-working items replaced:
 

 

Section 4: Disaster training strategy for NLA Staff

4.1 General Disaster Awareness: Prevention, Preparedness and Response

This level of training is to be presented by Preservation Services Staff.

4.1.1 For all NLA staff

This involves short annual training of around 30 minute duration, and it is intended that all Library staff attend. Sessions will be staggered at different times over a two week period to ensure Library coverage. In addition Emergency Procedure information is included in the induction information package for new recruits. Library Managers are responsible to ensure that all staff attend this basic level of training.

4.1.2 For Building Works Contractors

Building and Security Services staff will ensure that all contractors commencing significant building works will be issued a copy of the 'Contractor Protocols', which provide instructions on the responsibilities of contractors working around collection material.

4.1.3 NLA Home Page Disaster Awareness Information

To assist staff with access to general disaster awareness information, the following is available on the Library Home Page for Staff:

  • The Collection Disaster Plan
  • The single page Collection Disaster Response What you should do?
  • Relevant disaster articles

4.2 Advanced Disaster Training

This level of training is to be presented by a consultant.

4.2.1 For EPC Members

This level of training is to be presented by a consultant.

4.2.2 For Team Leaders and Salvage Teams

Prevention, preparedness, response and recovery for salvage teams and team leaders. An annual 1½ to 2 day scenario workshop for Preservation Services staff, Stack Supervisors, Collection Managers and/or nominated collection area staff. It is intended that trained staff would form a pool of expertise to draw on for salvage teams and team leaders when required.

Subjects covered in the presentation include:

  • role and responsibility of the group
  • assessing collection needs in disaster situations
  • deciding on salvage priorities for collections
  • development of short and long term response and recovery actions
  • assessment of disaster affected collection material
  • monitoring disaster recovery
  • OHS awareness
  • maintenance of the National Significance Register

4.2.3 For After Hours Staff

Prevention, preparedness and response awareness for after hours duty officers, security officers, Building and Security Services staff, and select stack staff. An Annual 2 hour training/refresher session.

4.3 Training Report Form

To ensure all library staff are given disaster training sessions, Preservation Staff are required to complete a disaster training report form detailing the date, area and staff attending for each session given. These forms are maintained on electronic file.

Information gathered from these reports is used to ensure the sessions reach most staff and future sessions cover information relevant to those staff. An example of the report form is shown on the next page.

 

Disaster Training Report
Date: 
Area: 
Staff Attending 
Training Provided By: 
Subjects Covered: 
Comments: 
Follow Up Session Required:Yes......... No.........
Subjects Follow-Up Session: 

Section 5: What to do when you discover a threat to collection material

What to do when you Discover a Threat to Collection Material

This page tells you what to do if you discover an incident or emergency situation that has caused or may cause damage to collection material and can include water leaks, flood, high dust levels, mould, vandalism, insect attack and equipment malfunction. Please keep it in a prominent place, ready to use.

Immediate Actions

When you discover an emergency situation involving collection material:

Assess the situation to ensure correct and safe response actions noting: -

  • source of disaster
  • if collection material is affected
  • if the area is safe

Inform people who need to know urgently:

  • Security
  • Building and Security Services Help Desk
  • Preservation Services
  • Your Supervisor
  • Exhibition Registrar - if Exhibition areas affected.

Evacuation of Material

To reduce risk of damage and ensure security Collection material should not be evacuated from storage without the express direction of the Director General, an Assistant DG, a member of EPC, or the Collections Disaster Coordinator.

If it is safe to do so, take short term urgent action to protect the collections.

Short Term Actions

Protect affected and threatened collection material by:

  • stopping the source of the problem where possible
  • not handling or moving affected collection material
  • preventing problems such as water leaks and dust affecting the collections by
  • covering collections with plastic sheeting,
  • containing water with bins, buckets, mops, squeegees and absorbent materials

Supplies to assist in protection of collection material are available from your nearest Local Emergency Supply Cabinet or wheelie bin. Cabinets are located in back lift lobbies of LG2, LG1, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and the 4th floors, in the loading bay and at both Warehouses. The Ground floor store is a specially identified cupboard in the staff area.

Wheelie bins are located on the 2nd floor behind the front lifts, 3rd floor work area, LG1 work areas.

Know your actions - use your initiative