Establishing name authorities

These guidelines should be followed when personal name headings are being established in the Australian National Bibliographic Database (ANBD) on Libraries Australia.

Libraries Australia will follow the form of heading established in the Library of Congress Name Authorities (LCNA). LCNA will take precedence over most name, title and series headings which have already been verified as authorities in ABN or Libraries Australia, and these headings may be retrospectively changed to conform with LCNA.

An exception will be made for Australian name, title and series headings, because authority records for Australian names, titles and series will usually be established earlier and more accurately by Australian libraries. Therefore, authorities for Australian names, titles and series, which conform to AACR2R and the Library of Congress rule interpretations, should not be changed retrospectively simply to conform with LCNA.

With this in mind, the following steps should be taken when establishing personal names in Libraries Australia:

  • Check for the name in the index. If the heading in the index has an Authority record attached, use this form.
  • If no heading or an unverified heading is found in the ANBD, check LCNA
  • If no heading is found in LCNA, or the heading found is designated AACR, AACR2-d, ALA, RETRO or UNEVAL, establish the heading by examining statements of responsibility in Libraries Australia and applying AACR2R rules and LC interpretations of those rules. See the following section Sources for establishing name headings on Libraries Australia for reference sources that may be useful when setting up a name heading.
  • If a heading is found in LCNA designated AACR2, AACR2 EVAL,AACR2 RETRO or AACR2 UNEVAL*, use this form unless:

If the date of birth becomes known after the heading has been established, add this to a reference or, if there is no reference, create an additional note field

e.g. 665 — ‡aBorn in 1952

Establish the LCNA form of heading exactly as it appears. Do not add a date of death when known to an LCNA heading that is open dated. Add information to a reference, or create an additional note field. An exception is made for current Australian headings, which may be closed off when the subject dies.

If the LCNA form conflicts with a heading already in the Authority File (i.e. the same heading would be used for two different people) try to break the conflict by finding additional information to modify the name represented by the non-LC heading. If no such information is available change character position 32 in the 008 field in the Authority record to “Nonunique name”.

*For LCNA headings designated AACR2 UNEVAL, do not use the references accompanying the heading without scrutiny as these have not been evaluated by LC as conforming to AACR2.

Sources for establishing name headings in Libraries Australia

All headings established in the ANBD must conform to Libraries Australia standards; that is, comply with AACR2R rules, LC interpretation of the rules, and any Libraries Australia approved variations from the rules and interpretations.

Library of Congress Name Authorities (LCNA) is the chief authority for determining the correct form of a name for use in the ANBD, and must be checked before entering a new name into the index, or adding an authority record to an existing name. Other reference tools need only be consulted when necessary, such as to resolve conflicts, to ascertain LC required qualifiers, etc.

The following paragraphs give mandatory and suggested reference sources that are to be consulted when establishing name headings in the ANBD. The tools listed are not definitive and have a bias towards the arts. It is assumed that the most recent editions will be consulted.

Personal names

All personal names must be checked in LCNA, in the most current cumulated edition and latest supplement or online at http://authorities.loc.gov/, and established according to the guidelines set out in this section.

The following may also be consulted for personal names:

If necessary consult appropriate encyclopaedias listed at the end of this section.

Corporate names

All corporate names must be checked in LCNA http://authorities.loc.gov/.

If a heading in LCNA designated AACR2, AACR2 EVAL, AACR2 RETRO or AACR2 UNEVAL, use this form unless the heading contains incorrect information such as a spelling error. If there is an error in the LCNA heading, establish a corrected version of the heading in the index and create a cross reference from the LCNA form.

[Note: For LCNA headings designated AACR2 UNEVAL do not use the references accompanying the heading without scrutiny, as these have not been evaluated by LC as conforming to AACR2.]

United States government bodies and instrumentalities not found in LCNA must be checked in:

  • United States government manual. Washington, D.C. : Office of the Federal Register,National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration.

Learned institutions not found in LCNA must be checked in:

  • The World of Learning. London : Europa Publications.

The following directories can be checked if appropriate:

  • Commonwealth government directory ... Canberra : Info Products.
  • NSW government directory. Sydney : New South Wales Government Information Service or online at http://www.directory.nsw.gov.au
  • Victorian government directory. Melbourne : Dept. of the Premier.
  • Queensland government executive directory. Brisbane : Queensland Dept of Communication and Information or online at http://www.qgd.qld.gov.au.
  • Directory of government in the Northern Territory. Darwin : Northern Territory Govt. Printing Office
  • Directory of government agencies. Hobart : Dept. of the Premier and Cabinet.
  • South Australian government directory. Adelaide : Government of South Australia.
  • Organization of the government of Canada. Ottawa : Information Canada.
  • Britain ... : an official hANBDook. London : H.M.S.O.
  • Ireland : a directory and yearbook. Dublin : Institute of Public Administration.
  • Encyclopedia of associations. Detroit : Gale Research.
  • Directory of British associations and associations in Ireland. Beckenham, England : CBD Research.
  • Directory of European industrial & trade associations. Beckenham, England : CBD Research.
  • Directory of European professional & learned societies. Beckenham, England : CBD Research.

Uniform titles

All uniform titles must be checked in LCNA http://authorities.loc.gov/

If a heading in LCNA is designated AACR2, AACR2 EVAL, AACR2 RETRO or AACR2 UNEVAL, use this form unless the heading contains incorrect information such as a spelling error. If there is an error in the LCNA heading, establish a corrected version of the heading in the index and create a cross reference from the LCNA form.

[Note: For LCNA headings designated AACR2 UNEVAL do not use the references accompanying the heading without scrutiny, as these have not been evaluated by LC as conforming to AACR2.]

The following may also be consulted for uniform titles:

  • Anonymous classics : a list of uniform headings for European literatures / compiled by the IFInternational Office of UBC. London : The Office, can be consulted if necessary.

Series

If a heading in LCNA designated AACR2, AACR2 EVAL, AACR2 RETRO or AACR2 UNEVAL, use this form unless the heading contains incorrect information such as a spelling error. If there is an error in the LCNA heading, establish a corrected version of the heading in the index and create a mapping reference from the LCNA form.

[Note: For LCNA headings designated AACR2 UNEVAL do not use the references accompanying the heading without scrutiny, as these have not been evaluated by LC as conforming to AACR2.]

All series must be checked in LCNA http://authorities.loc.gov/.

The following may also be consulted for series titles:

  • Monographic series. Washington, D.C. : Library of Congress, may also be consulted.

Additional sources

The following are suggested sources that can be consulted when establishing name headings:

  • Encyclopaedia Britannica. Chicago : Encyclopaedia Britannica
  • New Catholic encyclopedia. New York : McGraw Hill.
  • Encyclopaedia Judaica. Jerusalem : Encyclopaedia Judaica.
  • Encyclopaedia of religion and ethics. Edinburgh : T & T Clark.
  • Encyclopedia of philosophy. New York : Macmillan.
  • Australian encyclopaedia. Sydney : Grolier Society.
  • Contemporary authors. Detroit : Gale Research.
  • Biography and genealogy master index. Detroit : Gale Research.
  • Penguin companion to literature. London : Penguin.
  • Cassell's Encyclopaedia of world literature. London : Cassell & Co.
  • Kompass (various editions depending on country etc.)
  • Encyclopedia of world art. New York : McGraw Hill.
  • Oxford companion to music. London : Oxford University Press.
  • Powerhouse Museum Object Name Thesaurus
  • Grove's dictionary of music and musicians. London : Macmillan.

Establishing geographic names in Libraries Australia

The following method for establishing and verifying geographic names in the ANBD was devised with close attention to AACR2R (23.2A) which dictates that English usage take precedence over the use of the vernacular form.

  • Check for the name in the index. If the heading in the index has an Authority record attached, use this form.
  • If no heading or an unverified heading is found in the ANBD, check LCNA or LCSH <http://authorities.loc.gov/>
  • If the name has not already been established in these sources, check the following sources for specific countries.
Australia
Gazetteer of Australia 2002. Belconnen,A.C.T. : Geoscience Australia, 2002.
Online at http://www.ga.gov.au/map/names/
Basins of Australia / compiled by I. Borissova and P.A. Symonds. Canberra : Australian Geological Survey Organisation ; Dept. of Primary Industries and Energy, 1997.
Canada
Canada gazetteer atlas. [Montreal?] :Macmillan of Canada, 1980
Great Britain
Bartholomew gazetteer of places in Britain / compiled by Oliver Mason. Edinburgh : J. Bartholomew, 1986
Ordnance Survey gazetteer of Great Britain. all names from the1:50 000 scale land ranger maps. 4th ed. London : Macmillan,1999.
Indonesia
Times comprehensive atlas of the world. 10th comprehensive ed. London : Times Books, 2000.
Macquarie illustrated world atlas. Rev. ed. McMahons Point, N.S.W. : Macquarie Library in association with the Australian Surveying and Land Information Group, Canberra, Australia, and the Dept. of Survey and Land Information, Wellington, New Zealand, 1994.
Atlas Republik Indonesia / I Made Sandy. Cet. 7. Jakarta :Indografh Bakti dan Jurusan Geografi-FMIPA-U.I., 1986.
New Zealand
New Zealand atlas / general editor, D.W. McKenzie. Auckland : Reed, in association with the Department of Survey and Land Information, 1995.
United States
Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), U.S. Geological Surveyhttp://geonames.usgs.gov/
Columbia gazetteer of the world / edited by Saul B. Cohen. New York : Columbia University Press,c1998.
Other countries
In line with AACR2R (Rule 23.2A) use the English form of name in preference to the vernacular. When making a decision remember that the name in the catalogue should reflect as much as possible the catalogue user’s concept of the name. You will notice that Columbia’s editorial policy is to prefer the English form of name whereas that of the Times is to favour the vernacular.
First check the name against: GEOnet Names Server(GNS), National Imagery and Mapping Agency (U.S.), and U.S. Board on Geographic Names- http://www.nima.mil/gns/html
If the name is not there, consult: Columbia gazetteer of the world / edited by Saul B. Cohen. New York : Columbia University Press,c1998., or Penguin encyclopedia of places / John Paxton. 3rded. London : Penguin, 1999.
If it is not there, prefer the vernacular and consult Times comprehensive atlas of the world. 10th comprehensive ed. London: Times Books, 2000.
Or use a specialist atlas or gazetteer published in the country of origin.
If still unable to locate the name, use the form found in the item being catalogued.
For places which have undergone earlier name changes, such as through colonial expansion, a useful source that provides English preferred names with historical details is the Times gazetteer of the world,1899 edition. It is important to use this edition because later editions altered policy to prefer the vernacular which conflicts with AACR2R rules.