Australasian Journal of Ecocriticism and Cultural Ecology (the journal of ASLEC–ANZ)
National Library of Australia


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Author Guidelines


Style Sheet for AJE: Australasian Journal of Ecocriticism and Cultural Ecology
(the journal of ASLEC–ANZ)

Papers submitted to AJE should conform to the MLA citation and referencing style set out in the Seventh Edition (2009) of Gibaldi’s MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. Spelling and hyphenation should follow theMacquarie Concise Dictionary, Third Edition (1998).

What follows is an overview of key elements of MLA style. This overview does not include comprehensive guidelines for citing electronic publications. For that information, as well as for other details not found below, authors should consult the MLA Handbook. Information on the MLA style of citation for online documents is also available online from The Columbia Guide to Online Style at and Capital Community College’s online publication, A Guide for Writing Research Papers based on MLA Documentation at

Papers should be approximately 4000 words, excluding references.

In-text Citations
Parenthetical Citations

Sources of ideas, quotations and indirect quotations must be indicated in parentheses in the body of the text. A parenthetical reference must include the author’s last name, a space and then the page number or numbers; for example: (Robin 94). Information that is clear from the body of the text is omitted from the parenthetical citation; for example: Robin claims . . . (94). If your list of Works Cited includes more than one work by the same author, a comma should be placed after the author’s name followed by a short title—usually the first substantive word of the full title—in similar format to its appearance in the list of Works Cited (italics or in inverted commas); for example, (Miller, Poetics 45).

Works Cited
The bibliography should be restricted to a Works Cited–a documentation of only those works that are referred to in the body of the essay. A Works Cited should begin a new page, be appended to the end of the essay (following any endnotes) and list alphabetically all the sources cited in the essay. Sources should be listed according to the formats illustrated below:

Author’s last name, author’s first name. 'Section of work title'. Title of Work. Ed. Editor’s first, then last name. Place of publication: publishing house, year of publication. Page numbers. 
Medium. (i.e., Print).

Author’s last name, author’s first name. 'Title of article'. Title of Journal
Volume number. Issue number (year): page numbers.

Journal article sourced from an electronic database
Author’s last name, author’s first name. 'Title of article.' Title of Journal
Volume number. Issue number (year): page numbers. Name of database. Date accessed.

A Film or Video Recording
Title of film/recording
. Dir. Director’s first, then last name. Distributor. Year of release. [You may include additional information after the name of the Director—e.g., the author of the screenplay (Screenplay by…) or the performers (Perf.).]

Television or Radio Program
Title of episode or segment, if appropriate (in quotation marks). Title of program
(in italics). Title of series, if any (neither quotation marks nor italics). Name of network. Call letter of local station, if any). Broadcast date.

Internet Source
Author’s last name, author’s first name. 'Title of article'. Type of document, date posted. Date accessed .

Further explanatory details are provided in the list below. This list is in the order in which information should appear in the entry in your Works Cited; if any item of information is not relevant, proceed to the next item.

1. Author’s name as it appears on the title page of the work—last name first, followed by a comma, the full first name, then a full stop. For example: Flannery, Tim. If there is more than one author, list subsequent authors with their first names first, placing a comma after each author’s name and a full stop after the last one (see example list).

2. Title of a non-separately-published work (section of a book, article in a journal, episode in a television series, and so on) are placed in quotation marks, followed by a full stop outside the closing quotation marks. For example: 'The Wasteland'. or 'Masculinity and Femininity'. Use Title Case for all titles.

3. Title of the book or journal, in italics (not underlined). For example: Westerly or Selected Poems. Book titles are followed by a full stop; journal titles are not followed by a full stop. Use Title Case.

4. For articles in journals, place the volume number, a full stop, then the issue number of the journal after the title of the journal (if the journal does not paginate each issue separately, the volume number alone will suffice). Notice that there is no full stop after the title of a journal before the volume/issue number/s. For example: ISLE 10.1. 

For journals or magazines that do not use issue numbers but are only identified by their date of issue, use this date in place of the volume number. For example: Landscape September 2002.

5. For journals, after the volume and issue numbers leave a space and then put the year of publication in parentheses, followed by a colon, two spaces and the page number/s, followed by a full stop. For example: 3.2 (1989): 34-98. There is no need to repeat the year if the issue is identified by its date.

6. For books, name (first name then last name) of editor or translator preceded by the abbreviation 'Ed.' or 'Trans.' For example: Ed. Carole Ferrier or Trans. Alan Sheridan. There is one space between the full stop after the abbreviation and the first name of the editor/translator.

7. For books, you may cite the edition used, followed by a full stop. For example: 2nd ed.

8. For books, you may cite the number of volumes or Volume number. For example: 3 Vols. (three volumes in the series) or Vol. 3. (the third volume in the series).

9. Name of the series (optional), followed by a full stop. For example: Penguin Classics.

10. For books, cite the place of publication, a colon, one space, the name of the publisher. For example: London: Oxford UP (always use U for University and P for Press).

11. For books, after the publisher add a comma, a space and the year of publication, followed by a full stop. For example: London: Oxford UP, 1999.

12. For a chapter of a book leave two spaces after the full stop and put the page number/s, followed by a full stop. For example: London: Oxford UP, 1999. 23-36.

13. For sources accessed through electronic databases, follow the usual bibliographical information with the title of the database in italics, followed by a full stop. For example: Proquest.

14. For other electronic sources, follow the title with the type of work, one space, and the date posted followed by a full stop. For example: Working Paper June 2002.

15. For all electronic sources, leave two spaces after the full stop and follow this by the date you accessed the work, one space, and the complete URL, followed by a full stop. For example: Working Paper June 2002. 13 January 2003.

Example of List of Works Cited
Works Cited

One Author [5.2] Morton, Timothy. Ecology without Nature: Rethinking Environmental Aesthetics. Cambridge Massachusetts: Harvard UP, 2007. Print.

Editors, Compilers, Translators [5.5.4]
Merleau-Ponty, Maurice. The Visible and the Invisible. Trans. Alphonso Lingis. Evanston: Northeastern UP, 1968. Print.

Cotter, Maria, Bill Boyd, and Jane Gardiner, eds. Heritage Landscapes: Understanding Place and Communities. Lismore: Southern Cross UP, 2001. Print.

Fabre, Jean Henri. ‘The Song of the Cigale’. Trans. Bernard Maiall. The Fabulous Insects: Essays by the Foremost Nature Writers. Ed. Charles Neider. New York: Cooper Square Press, 1982. 116-127. Print.

Naess, Arne. ‘The Shallow and the Deep, Long-Range Ecology Movements: A Summary’. Philosophical Dialogues: Arne Naess and the Progress of Ecophilosophy. Eds. Nina Witoszek and Andrew Brennan. Lanham: Rowman, 1999. Print.

Film and Theatre:
Gorillas in the Mist. Dir. Michael Apted. Perf. Sigourney Weaver, Bryan Brown. Warner Bros, 1988.

The Buccaneers. By Edith Wharton. Adapt. Maggie Wadey. Perf. Mira Sovino, Alison Elliott, and Carla Gugino. 3 episodes. Masterpiece Theatre. Introd. Russell Baker. PBS. WGBH, Boston. 27 Apr.– 11 May 1997.

'Frankenstein: The Making of the Monster'. Great Books. Narr. Donald Sutherland. Writ. Eugenie Vink. Dir. Jonathan Ward. Learning Challen. 8 Sept. 1993

Journals and Papers:
Constantini, MariaConcetta. ‘ “Strokes of Havoc”: Treefelling and the Poetic Tradition of Ecocriticism in Manley Hopkins and Gerard Manley Hopkins’. Victorian Poetry 46:4 (2008): 487-510.

Peters, Michael and Ruth Irwin. ‘Earthsongs: Ecopoetics, Heidegger and Dwelling’. The Trumpeter 18:1 (2002): 1-16.

Sinclair, Iain. ‘Breaking the Skin of Things’. 28 Dec 2010

Smith, Dean Howard, Sarah Viglucci and Patrica West. ‘A Further Analysis of the Verde River Watershed Ecovalues’. Working paper, 10 March 2010. 28 Dec 2010

Markwell, Kevin. 'Mardi Gras Tourism and the Construction of Sydney as an International Gay and Lesbian City'. Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies 8.4 (2002): 81-99. Project Muse GLQ. 2 February 2003 journal_of_lesbian_and gay_studies/.

Quotations must follow the original text exactly. Square brackets should be used for interpellations (clarifications, emphases, signals of error in the original).

Whenever you wish to omit a word, a phrase, a sentence, or more from a quoted passage you should use ellipses. You should be guided by two principles: fairness to the author quoted and the grammatical integrity of your writing. A quotation should never be presented in a way that could cause a reader to misunderstand the sentence structure of the original source.

Indicate such omissions by using three full stops, with a space between each full stop. End punctuation of a sentence or clause should precede the ellipses.

Example. As Hoagland wrote: 'The life schedules of wild licorice and lodgepole lupin are linked to the flight lessons of ruffed grouse . . . harebells and silverweed [in flowering season] to mallard ducklings; long-plumed[emphasis added] avans to bison calves and Swainson’s hawks’(48).

Short Quotations

Quotations less than four lines in length should not be indented, but included in your running text and enclosed within quotation marks.

Example. Noel Perrin comments that, ‘if you put all of us in the wilderness at once, we’d each have a fifth of an acre’ (Halpin and Frank 23).

Long Quotations

Quotations of four lines or more should be indented and not enclosed in quotation marks. Indented quotations are normally introduced by a colon. Notice that there is no full stop after a long quote’s parenthetical citation.


Writing on humans and animals in the city, Annabelle Sabloff said:

As we try to deal with the planetary crisis on the international stage, we need at the same time to try and find our own missing metaphors. We will have to accept and openly affiliate with nonhuman life that we now admit only under false pretenses into our urban lives. We will need to imagine cool streams flowing beneath city pavements, patiently watch weeds breaking through concrete . . . and hear the rush of wings over the noise of traffic – to register the structures of feeling [emphasis in original]. (Sabloff 14-15)

Punctuation in Quotations
• Smart quotes (‘text’ or “text”) should be used, not straight quotes. All quotes should be enclosed by single quotation marks except for quotes within quotes, which should be enclosed by double quotation marks.

• Whether or not the quote is set off from the body of the text, it is usually preceded by a colon if it is formally introduced and by a comma or no punctuation if it is an integral part of the text.

• Commas and periods that directly follow quotations go inside the closing quotation marks, but if there is a parenthetical citation after the quotation, then end punctuation follows the parenthesis.

• If a quotation ends with both single and double quotation marks, the comma or period precedes both: 'Read "Upstairs, Downstairs,"' she told me.

• Semicolons, colons, question marks and exclamation marks go outside a closing quotation mark, except when they are part of the quoted material.


The full title of any work published separately should be italicised: books, plays, long poems, periodicals, newspapers, films, paintings, TV series, recordings. The title of any work published as part of another work should be enclosed in single quotation marks: poems, short stories, essays, articles, book chapters, TV or radio episodes. Titles of sacred works (New Testament), publishing series (Portable Australian Authors), editions series (Signet Classics), courses (Cultures, Identities, Texts) should not be italicised or placed in quotation marks.

Illustrations, such as photographs, maps, graphs and pictures, should be labelled as Figure 1., Figure 2., Figure 3. below the illustration.

A title/ caption should be placed after the figure number, beginning with a capital letter and ending with a full stop (do not use all capital letters). The source of the illustration should be indicated either in the text or beneath the caption to enable the reader to locate the work from which the illustration is taken in the Works Cited. Illustrations must all be attributed correctly and copyright must be sought if necessary.

Tables should be labelled Table 1, Table 2, Table 3, and so on, above the table with no full stop after the numeral. There should be a caption or title directly below the table heading, beginning with a capital letter and ending with a full stop (do not use all capital letters). If the source has not been given in the text, give it below the table. Notice that there is no full stop after the caption, but there is a full stop after the source.

Full names (first and last names) should be used on the first occasion and only the last name on subsequent occasions. For authors, the name under which they publish should be used: Henry Handel Richardson, Anais Nin, ee cummings.

Words should be used for numbers one to ten; numerals for numbers 11 and beyond. When stating a range of numbers between zero and 99, the numbers should be stated in full (36-89, 1-23). When stating a range of numbers beyond 99, only the last two digits of the final number should be given unless more are necessary for comprehension (256-58, 1004-56, 348-1009).

Day, month, year should be used without punctuation: 28 June 2001. Lower case should be used for centuries and decades: seventeenth century, the fifties and sixties. Numerals are permitted but with NO APOSTROPHE: 1890s, 1950s.


In-text parenthetical citations mean that there is rarely a need to use footnotes or endnotes for bibliographic references. Endnotes should only be used to expand on some point made in the text or to add information that doesn’t 'fit' in the text. There should be no bibliographic endnotes and few, if any, expansion/extra information endnotes.

Number notes consecutively, starting from 1. Use Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3), not Roman numerals or any other symbols. Format note numbers as raised slightly above the line (for example:1), and do not follow the numbers with full stops or any other punctuation marks. The numbers must be placed after the punctuation marks in a sentence, except for dashes. Often it is best to position note numbers at the end of a sentence, so as not to disrupt the flow of the sentence.

S or Z? Please use s, not z for word endings—for example, realise, not realize. More generally, use Australian spelling as per the Macquarie Dictionary.





Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.

  1. The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  2. The submission file is in Microsoft Word, RTF, or WordPerfect document file format.
  3. Where available, URLs for the references have been provided, along with the date when the URL was accessed.
  4. The text is single-spaced; uses Times New Roman 12-point font; uses Australian punctuation and spelling; employs italics, rather than underlining; and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.There are no Footnotes, only Endnotes, and these, if any, are kept at a minimum.
  5. The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines, which is found in About the Journal. The AJE Style Sheet is based on MLA referencing.
  6. If submitting to a peer-reviewed section of the journal, the instructions in Ensuring a Blind Review have been followed.

Copyright Notice

Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:

  1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.

  2. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.

  3. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).