Rebels and Patriots
It has been estimated that around 3,600 convicts were transported for being political or social protestors, although it is sometimes difficult to distinguish the motive for a crime. There have been many books written about convicts who were transpoted for that reason.
Protest and Punishment - the story of the social and political protesters transported to Australia, 1788-1868
French Canadian Rebels as Australian Convicts - details the story of 58 French Canadians convicted of treason after the 1838 Lower Canada rebellion and transported for life to New South Wales in 1839.