Establishing subject authorities

  • Introduction
  • Tagging of subject headings
  • Headings not requiring SHRP approval
  • Subdivision practice for Australia
  • Introduction

    The subject authority file on the Libraries Australia database is based on Library of Congress Subject Headings, but is not identical to LCSH. It contains additional headings and references approved by the Libraries Australia Subject Headings Review Panel.

    All subject headings must be checked in the most current edition of LCSH and the list of approved subject headings available at Australian Extension to LCSH.

    Free-floating subdivisions are to be checked in the most current edition of LCSH, or the LC Subject Cataloguing Manual. Most free-floating subdivisions have restrictions on their application, and must be used in accordance with certain guidelines which can be found in the scope notes given under each subdivision in LCSH, and also in the LC Subject Cataloguing Manual.

    When creating authority records in Libraries Australia, the following references should be added from LCSH:

    UF (input as 4XX)
    RT (input as 5XX)
    BT (input as 5XX)
    Scope notes (input as 6XX)

    The references NT and USE are not be added as these are created automatically by the system when a BT, RT or UF reference is added to the reciprocal heading

    Libraries Australia encourages both Libraries Australia customers and other Australian libraries to submit proposals for subject headings for concepts that are not adequately covered by LCSH, and for additional Australian terminology references to existing headings, according to the guidelines and procedures outlined on the pages when you follow the Proposing a new LCSH links.

    Online forms for proposing new subject headings, and changes to existing headings can be found on our Contact Us page under ‘Specific Forms’.

    Once approved, proposals are transmitted to the Library of Congress, with a request to incorporate the heading or reference into LCSH

    The Macquarie Dictionary has been accepted as the standard authority for the spelling of proposed subject headings and references.

    Tagging of subject headings

    Subject headings in Libraries Australia may be tagged as personal, corporate, family, conference or meeting name, topical, geographic, or uniform title. The1XX number refers to the tag used in the authority record while the 6XX number is the corresponding tag used in the bibliographic record:

    (100, 600) Family or personal name subject heading
    (110, 610) Corporate name subject heading
    (111, 611) Conference or meeting name subject heading
    (130, 630) Uniform title subject heading
    (150, 650) Topical subject heading
    (151, 651) Geographic subject heading

    See also Library of Congress Subject Cataloguing Manual: Subject Headings, h305, CSB 78, p2

    Subject headings that designate groups of countries or regions of the world are tagged 151. This applies to headings that represent geographically contiguous groups of countries, such as Scandinavia, Benelux countries, Slavic countries, or groups of countries that share a common political, ethnic or other trait, regardless of whether they are geographically contiguous, such as Developing countries, European Union countries, Arab countries, Communist countries, or regions that are geographically contiguous or share a common trait, Polar regions and Tropics (but not Arid regions).

    An alphabetic list of ambiguous entities is maintained by the Library of Congress – http://www.loc.gov/aba/pcc/saco/alpha405.html

    Headings not requiring SHRP approval

    Commercial products

    The following guidelines have been prepared for the establishment and verification of headings for all types of commercial products required as subject headings, in particular for motor vehicles, but also for aircraft, tanks, cameras, etc.

    Subject headings formulated according to these guidelines do not need to be submitted to the Subject Headings Review Panel for approval.

    a. Establish a heading in the following style

    make model generic term
    For example:

    Ford Laser automobile
    Canon AT1 camera

    • Do not include names which refer to body style, e.g. estate, hatchback, station wagon, zagato, hardtop.
    • Do not include designations indicating level of equipment, e.g. de luxe, standard, special.
    • The model name may simply be a set of alpha and/or numerical characters, e.g. HQ; 200B; V8.
    • If the generic term is contained in the model name, the generic term is dropped, e.g. Ford Econovan.
    • If the make occurs as the second element of the model name, the heading should be established as model generic term only.

    b. See references
    Add see references from all alternative names, and different spellings of the model name. When the model name is distinctive, reference may also be made from the model generic term to the established form, e.g.

    150 Ford Laser automobile
    450 Laser automobile

    c. See also references
    Always make a see also reference from the generic term, e.g.

    150 Ford Laser automobile
    550 Automobiles

    Always make a see also reference from the make without the model name, e.g.

    150 Ford Laser automobile
    550 Ford automobile

    Make see also references between headings for the same model produced by different firms.

    Headings qualified by linguistic, national or regional terms for which a pattern is clearly established in LCSH.

    The following types of headings can be established directly on Libraries Australia:

    Headings qualified by linguistic, national, or regional terms for which a pattern is clearly established in LCSH.

    For these types of headings, follow the instructions in Section H320 of the Library of Congress subject cataloguing manual for the reference structure, for example:

    150 Women poets, Australian
    450 Australian women poets
    150 Travellers’ writings, Australian
    450 Australian travelers’ writings
    150 Astrology, Khmer
    450 Khmer astrology
    450 Astrology, Cambodian

    Subdivision practice for Australia

    Indirect local subdivision

    When subdividing topics by Australian geographic places, subdivide directly through the relevant state or territory. Do not follow the Library of Congress practice of subdividing topics through Australia.

    Libraries Australia practice is to include Australia in the countries which are subdivided by first order political division.

    The following is a list of the countries that are subdivided by first order political division.

    Country Divisions
    Australia States or territories
    Canada Provinces
    Great Britain Constituent counties
    United States States

    Include Australia with the other three countries listed wherever these exceptions are applied in the LC Subject Cataloguing Manual.

    Period subdivisions for Australia, Australian states, territories and capital cities.

    Free floating subdivisions used under place–special application

    When subdivisions from the subset of free floating subdivisions:
    –Church history
    –Civilization
    –Economic conditions
    –Economic policy
    –Foreign relations
    –History
    –History, Military
    –Politics and government
    –Social conditions
    –Social life and customs

    are used under Australia and Australian states, territories and Australian capital cities the following period subdivisions can be applied. These period subdivisions differ from LC as they have been constructed to suit Australian circumstances and history.

    Australia

    Australian Capital Territory and New South Wales

    To 1788
    1788-1851
    1788-1900
    1851-1891
    1851-1901
    1891-1901
    20th century
    1901-1914
    1901-1922
    1901-1945
    1914-1918
    1918-1922
    1922-1929
    1922-1945
    1929-1939
    1939-1945
    1945-
    1945-1965
    1965-
    1965-1972
    1972-1975
    1976-1990
    1990-2001
    2001-

    Northern Territory

    To 1824
    1824-1851
    1824-1900
    1851-1891
    1851-1901
    1891-1901
    20th century
    1901-1914
    1901-1922
    1902-1945
    1914-1918
    1918-1922
    1922-1929
    1922-1945
    1929-1939
    1939-1945
    1945-
    1945-1965
    1965-
    1965-1972
    1972-1975
    1976-1990
    1990-2001
    2001-

    Western Australia

    To 1829
    1829-1851
    1829-1900
    1851-1891
    1851-1901
    1891-1901
    20th century
    1901-1914
    1901-1922
    1901-1945
    1914-1918
    1918-1922
    1922-1929
    1922-1945
    1929-1939
    1939-1945
    1945-
    1945-1965
    1965-
    1965-1972
    1972-1975
    1976-1990
    1990-2001
    2001-

    Queensland

    To 1824
    1824-1851
    1824-1900
    1851-1891
    1851-1901
    1891-1901
    20th century
    1901-1914
    1901-1922
    1901-1945
    1914-1918
    1918-1922
    1922-1929
    1922-1945
    1929-1939
    1939-1945
    1945-
    1945-1965
    1965-
    1965-1972
    1972-1975
    1976-1990
    1990-2001
    2001-

    South Australia

    To 1836
    1836-1851
    1836-1900
    1851-1891
    1851-1901
    1891-1901
    20th century
    1901-1914
    1901-1922
    1901-1945
    1914-1918
    1918-1922
    1922-1929
    1922-1945
    1929-1939
    1939-1945
    1945-
    1945-1965
    1965-
    1965-1972
    1972-1975
    1976-1990
    1990-2001
    2001-

    Tasmania

    To 1803
    1803-1851
    1803-1900
    1851-1891
    1851-1901
    1891-1901
    20th century
    1901-1914
    1901-1922
    1901-1945
    1914-1918
    1918-1922
    1922-1929
    1922-1945
    1929-1939
    1939-1945
    1945-
    1945-1965
    1965-
    1965-1972
    1972-1975
    1976-1990
    1990-2001
    2001-

    Victoria

    To 1834
    1834-1851
    1834-1900
    1851-1891
    1851-1901
    1891-1901
    20th century
    1901-1914
    1901-1922
    1901-1945
    1914-1918
    1918-1922
    1922-1929
    1922-1945
    1929-1939
    1939-1945
    1945-
    1945-1965
    1965-
    1965-1972
    1972-1975
    1976-1990
    1990-2001
    2001-

    NOTE: These period subdivisions cannot be applied to regions of Australia, e.g. Australia, Central

    Period subdivisions used under ‘–Description and travel’,

    The use of period subdivisions under ‘–Description and travel’ was cancelled in 1994. For further information see Subject Cataloguing Manual H1530 or Cataloguing Service Bulletin No. 63 Winter 1994