Before Federation, meteorological services were set up in each State in the mid 19th century. They published meteorological obsevations monthly and annually in bulletins, reports & newspapers.

In 1879 the first intercolonial meteorological conference was held in Sydney.

Then with Federation, Commonwealth Constitution enacted that "Parliament shall, subject to this Constitution, have powers to make laws for the peace, order and good government of the Commonwealth with respect to interalia meteorological observations". 

The Meteorology Act of 1906 (Commonwealth of Australia Act No 3 of 1906) was assented to on 28 August 1906 and established the position of Commonwealth Meteorologist. The Bureau of Meteorology formally commenced operation on 1 January 1908 under the first Commonwealth Meteorologist, Henry Hunt.

The constiitution of the Commonwealth of Australia, adopted in 1901, provided for the Federal Government to take over the responsibility for meteorology, the Bill for an Act to achieve this was not passed until 1906 and the Commonwealth Bureau of Meteorology was not established until 1908. This left Australian meteorology in limbo for 7 years. Windows on Mete p.95)

Other governing bodies included - The Department of Climate Change existed between 2007 and 2010.  The Climate Commission was an independent body established in 2011 by the Federal Government of Australia to communicate "reliable and authoritative information" about climate change in Australia. Abolished in 2013, it was relaunched as an independent non-profit organisation called the Climate Council.