Recording date:

On 24 September 1989, the Canberra Raiders defeated the Balmain Tigers in the grand final of the New South Wales Rugby League Premiership. In the days following the win, Canberra was flooded in a sea of green celebration. On the 30th anniversary of this memorable game, the Library’s Director of Exhibitions, Dr Guy Hansen, will discuss how success on the sporting field added a new dimension to Canberra’s identity and changed how the city was seen beyond its borders.

When the Raiders Come to Town with Dr Guy Hansen


*Speakers: Andrew Sargeant (A), Guy Hansen (G)

*Audience: (Au)

*Location: National Library of Australia

*Date: 24/9/19


A:        Good afternoon, everyone. Welcome to the National Library of Australia and to this talk, When the Raiders Come to Town by Dr Guy Hansen. My name is Andrew Sargeant and I’m the Petherick Librarian here at the National Library in the Reader Services Branch.

As we begin I’d like to acknowledge and celebrate the first Australians on whose traditional lands we meet. I pay my respects to the elders of the Ngunnawal and Ngambri people past and present for caring for this land that we’re now privileged to call our home.

It’s a great pleasure to welcome you all here to the Library this afternoon to hear from Dr Guy Hansen whose passion for League is perhaps unmatched although maybe not in this institution.

Now this talk was organised many moons ago and I was asked to do the intro quite a few weeks back long before we knew who would be playing in the finals. However I feel that I must now nail my colours to the mast. Yes, I have the red and green disease and in case Guy happens to forget to tell you he’s one of those poor souls that barrack for Parramatta. It’s good to see that he’s recovered sufficiently to turn up today, though. Guy, I can see this is going to be a tough crowd, I think.

Now I should have been a Berries supporter and for those not old enough to remember, The Berries are what used to be The Bulldogs. I was born in Canterbury Hospital, raised in Bankstown but come the week of the ’67 grand final I was in school in Year 3 just sort of becoming aware of what footy was all about and of course all the kids, grand final week, all the kids were going to go for The Berries. Being a bit of a contrarian kid I said no, I’m going to go for the other team and that was it. Of course the good guys won and that was it for life.

1971 was the last glory year before the long 43-year drought and I copped it throughout high school from all the Bulldog supporters. By the late ‘70s I was driving in from Bankstown to Redfern Oval with a mate whose dad used to play for them. If anybody remembers Freddie Anderson, he actually played for Australia and The Dogs or The Berries. We used to pick a safe spot on the ground at Redfern Oval because it was steel beer cans in those days that flew through the air and as often as not watching them get hammered by the opposition. The ‘70s and early ‘80s were very lean years for Souths. But at least the Leagues Club was right across the road.

But on to today’s talk. The Canberra Raiders’ win over the Balmain Tigers in the Rugby League premiership on the 24th of September 1989 saw Canberra flooded with a sea of green in the days following as fans celebrated the success of their relatively new team. Today’s 30 years to the day of that historic win. Guy’s talk will explore the lasting impact that victory had on Canberra’s identity and how the city’s image beyond its borders changed in the eyes of sporting fans across the country. So please join me in a sympathetic welcome for Dr Guy Hansen.


G:        Thank you very much, Andrew. It is true, I am a Parramatta fan. I was born in walking distance of Cumberland Oval and I spent much of the 1970s watching Parramatta being beaten which made me the person I am today. So I’m happy to say that my second team is The Raiders and I am quietly confident that they will dispatch South Sydney on Friday.


G:        See? When you're doing public speaking they say know your audience so go The Raiders. Okay.

So let me come to the talk we’re giving today about this match which was to the day 30 years ago at the Sydney Football Stadium, there were 40,000 fans and we had The Tigers v The Raiders so that’s the match which we’re going to look at and I’m just going to give you a little reminder of what happened that day.

[Video plays]

G:        So there we go, that wasn’t actually the end of the match but that was the point that it was beyond any possibility that Balmain could win and that game has – for many commentators at the time The Moose, Rex Mossat, declared it the best game – best grand final that had been played and other commentators agreed. Of course there’s been many grand finals since then and there might be more debate about it now but it’s a game which has enduring fascination and it’s entered into becoming part of rugby league’s mythology.

So why is this game still remembered as one of the best grand finals ever? Interestingly the game comes not just from the athleticism and skill shown on the day but also the way The Raiders fought their way from obscurity to grand final glory. This story has many of the ingredients of a great legend. Like [Anor] 5:49 Smith, there are heroic characters, obstacles overcome, violence, drama, victory and defeat. More on this later.

I also want to look at what this victory meant for the city of Canberra. Success on the football field helped forge a new sense of identity for the city so let’s go back to 1989 and look at what was going on in rugby league at that time. This was a high point in the expansion – the 1980s expansion of the New South Wales Rugby League. The League administrators were congratulating themselves on increasing attendance at games and also on increasing revenue. Money was pouring in from television. The League had negotiated a massive deal with Channel 10. There was also money from Winfield with the Winfield Cup and there was also money from FootyTAB because they made an agreement with gambling. So they had big crowds and they had lots of money

Now while the administrators were congratulating themselves on growing the game they perhaps were not prepared for what was coming. The game’s growing popularity had made it a target for the coming struggle for content for cable television. So this is – 1989 I see as a peak in the game’s history where everybody thinks we’re doing a fantastic job but just around the corner is that horrible thing called the Super League war.

So let’s have a look at how The Raiders came to play in the 1989 grand final. As it turns out the Library is a great place to be if you want to reconstruct this story. In our collections we’ve got a complete run of Rugby League Week and also The Big League which are the major sort of print publications about rugby league from this period. Also much to my pleasure we also have many of the memoirs of players who played in the 1989 grand final and so you can enjoy yourself reading these stories which are usually as told so they’re usually ghost-written by journalists like Ian Heads or John McDonald and various other writers. But there’s quite a good rugby league literature to investigate.

So before you can actually get into the grand final you have to get into the competition and that happened in 1982 when the New South Wales Rugby League accepted The Raiders and The Stealers into the competition. Now these were the first teams from outside of Sydney to join the competition since Newcastle’s short stint in 1908. So Newcastle was there for one year and then after that the competition was very much based around Sydney ‘cause The Raiders and the The Stealers were the first part of an expansion of the game and in 1988 they were joined by the Brisbane Bronchos, the Gold Coast Giants and the Newcastle Knights. So in this period of the 1980s you can see that the rugby league competition has expanded from a suburban Sydney competition of 12 teams into a national competition of 16 teams.

In some ways it’s surprising that Canberra was the first interstate team to join the competition. Canberra was not traditionally seen as a rugby league stronghold. Indeed both Australian Rules Football and soccer had higher participation rates in Canberra and of course historically Canberra had a much stronger connection with Melbourne rather than Sydney and that was because the capital had moved from Melbourne in 1927. Departments had come up and they’d brought with them a lot of VFL supporters. So in some ways you’d think maybe more a Queensland club might have come into the competition but it was Canberra who came in.

How did that happen? Well it wasn’t actually the people in Canberra, it was the people out of Queanbeyan who made it happen. Queanbeyan, unlike Canberra, was very much a league town and the Queanbeyan Leagues Club realised that a team from Queanbeyan was unlikely to be admitted into a national competition but a team from Canberra could be marketed as representing the national capital and could attract support throughout regional New South Wales.

At the time that Queanbeyan was plotting to join the New South Wales Rugby League they were able to point to the success of the relatively new basketball team, the Canberra Cannons. The Cannons were one of the foundation clubs of the National Basketball League which was established in 1979 and they did very well in the competition, attracted strong support and went on to win titles in 1983, 1984 and 1988 and so here you can see Phil Smyth who was one of their star players.

So the Cannons are important in this story because they prove that Canberra could support a successful sporting franchise. The New South Wales Rugby League decided to select Canberra over bids from Campbelltown, Newcastle and Central Coast. The new team was called The Raiders and would be based at Seiffert Oval in Queanbeyan. There’s a picture of the oval. So it was actually not until 1990 that The Raiders relocated to Bruce Stadium.

So in this early phase Queanbeyan and the surrounding areas provided a base-level support for The Raiders while its popularity would grow in the city. So this is the 1982 Raiders side. Now 1982 wasn’t a very successful year for The Raiders, they came last and won the wooden spoon but they were showing signs that they would be a good team and they quickly developed, they used a lot of talent from country New South Wales and also from Queensland and in 1987 they reached their first grand final.

Unfortunately they were defeated by Manly, 18 to 8 but you can see here they had Wayne Bennett, one of the most famous rugby league coaches in rugby league history was their coach at that time. They’d already demonstrated that they were on track to being a very powerful team.

Now these early years of The Raiders coincided with a period of rapid change in Canberra. In 1988 the new Parliament House had opened to much fanfare and also the federal government had begun implementing self-government in Canberra. Now of course Canberrans had voted against self-government but the federal government had decided to proceed with it anyway.

The first ACT election was held on the 4th of March 1989 just before the beginning of the football season. This election is famous for having a ballot paper which was almost a metre wide. There were 17 candidates representing 22 political parties and it’s fun to go back and look at some of the party names from this period, the Sun-ripened Warm Tomato Party, the Party Party Party, the Surprise Party and of course the No Self-Government Party. So I think that election reflected the way that many Canberrans did resent that self-government was being imposed on the city but it’s kind of interesting to think just at this point of time this new football team has arrived and is starting to do really well. They would help define a new identity for the city as it actually moved into self-government.

So let’s bring our focus in now and look in detail at the 1989 season. Sixteen teams were competing in that expanded competition. After 22 rounds South Sydney were the minor premiers followed by Penrith in second position, Balmain in third position, Canberra in the fourth position and Brisbane and Cronulla drawn for fifth. The fact that The Raiders had made it into the final five was something of a surprise. In round 18 The Raiders were in seventh position and were in danger of missing the finals. They began a heroic five-game winning streak which took them to fourth position on the table. Now of course fourth position is the position that The Raiders finished in this year but of course it’s a final eight rather than a final five now.

At that stage the teams from fourth – whilst they had made it to the grand final, a couple of teams had gone on to make it to the grand final from fourth, no-one had ever gone on to win so The Raiders were pretty much written off at this stage. That said they went on another winning streak and they defeated Cronulla in the semi-finals and Penrith and then South Sydney – sorry, Andrew - and that’s how they earned their place in the grand final against Balmain.

So while The Raiders were considered lucky to have made it Balmain was seen as a team very much deserving of victory. The previous year they’d made it to the grand final only to lose to Canterbury 28 to 12. There was a consensus amongst rugby league pundits that it was their turn in 1989. This bias towards The Tigers was not surprising. Balmain was a traditional inner-city working class club and it was captained by Wayne Junior Pearce. Junior had grown up next to Leichhardt Oval and had dreamed of playing for The Tigers from when he was a boy. As a teenager he’d sold hot dogs at the ground and played for local teams. He’d come to be seen as the personification of all that was good about Balmain. The Tigers’ coach, Warren Ryan, used Pearce’s local hero status to motivate his team. His refrain when talking to journalists was, we need to do it for Junior. He said that again and again when being interviewed.

Now while Balmain had their hero in Junior Pearce, Canberra had its hero, Mal Meninga. A product of Queensland Meninga joined The Raiders in 1985. He was already considered one of the best players in Australia. At this stage in his career he was most probably best known for breaking his arm regularly. Over the previous 18 months he’d broken his arm four times. The first occasion was at Seiffert Oval in 1987 when he famously collided with a goalpost, he damaged it again in a game against Penrith later in 1987 and he broke it again in a Sevens tournament in February 1988, and again playing for Australia against the rest of the world in late 1988. So in some ways the fact that he was even playing in the grand final can be seen as an amazing feat and you can see that his arm’s very heavily bandaged in the footage of the game.

Now of course Junior Pearce and Mal were not the only stars playing on that day. If you look at the team lists you can see that there were many superstars playing. Now this of course I’m sure will be familiar to many of you. This is the program which you’d see in big league with all the players on the day and you can see there’s many famous rugby league names there with Gary Belcher, Laurie Daly, John Ferguson, Ricky Stuart, Glenn Lazarus, Kevin Walters, Bradley Clyde in the Canberra side. In the Balmain side of course we’ve Ben Elias, Garry Jacks, Steve Roach and Paul Sironen so it really was – the stars of rugby league were playing on this day.

So as I mentioned the Sydney media were very biased towards The Tigers and I think a good example of this is the cover of Rugby League Week in grand final week. As you can see it shows - it’s referencing the victories of The Tigers in 1939, 1969 and 1989. It’s almost like it’s inevitable progression, The Tigers are destined to win this game so that was the way it was being presented in Sydney. The paper’s expert tipsters, Norm Tasker and Tony Durkin, both tipped Balmain to win. Durkin’s match preview came with a dash of moral judgment. Balmain are experienced, hungry and disciplined. Canberra are experienced and hungry but substitute much of their discipline with flare. In rugby league culture this was a scathing comment. The Raiders were showy compared to the tough, disciplined Tigers.

Now the favouritism shown to Balmain was not surprising given that they were one of the foundation clubs of the League which had started in 1908. Canberra in contrast were seen as interlopers by Sydney fans. Canberra had only recently joined the competition and its playing ranks consisted of country footballers and Queenslanders. While many fans supported the growth of the game they were not keen to see a club from outside Sydney take home the trophy.

So let’s sharpen our focus again and look at what happened on the day of the grand final on the 24th of September. So here I have the grand final program as it was reproduced in Big League. So just at about this time on the day I think Parramatta were playing North Sydney in reserve grade and I'm sorry to say North Sydney won. Parramatta’s still in the competition, though. That was unkind, I’m sorry.

So I think one of the most interesting aspects of the day was the pre-match entertainment or what was called the grand final spectacular. It was titled Save Our Future and it was built as a musical tribute to the environment. What happened at this spectacular was in front of a large inflatable plastic tree and surrounded by female dancers wearing costumes possibly inspired by bats or possibly by moths, I’m not sure, John Williamson performed Rip Rip Woodchip and Debbie Byrne sang Nature’s Lament.

For the Rugby League this was a strong political statement. This was a year which had seen an extended campaign in Tasmania to stop the Wesley Vale pulp mill. For some people in the rugby league world this was controversial, it provided admonishment from Super coach, Jack Gibson, who in his column in Rugby League Week said rugby league should stay within its bounds. But it was a bit surprising to see that highlight of environmental concerns before the game.

After the pregame entertainment the next thing on the program was a video message from Tina Turner. Now I haven’t been able to find the text of what Tina said to the fans but it was clear she’d become a big fan of rugby league. Earlier in the year the New South Wales Rugby League had contracted Tina to promote the game. The initial campaign featured her song, What You Get Is What You See which was followed up in 1990 with Simply The Best which is widely said to be the most successful sporting advertising campaign in Australian history.

Whilst Tina was addressing the fans the two respective first grade teams were in their dressing rooms waiting to go out. Then we have Debbie Byrne come out at 3:00 and sing the national anthem and then we have kick-off. Now I did spend some time trying to describe this game in writing up mini versions of it but I soon realised that that was silly, you really need to see it so there’s a lovely little highlights package which the Canberra Raiders were able to get for me so I’ll play that.

[Video plays]

So I’m not going to show extra time but we all know what happened. But the extra time of course is interesting ‘cause all the players are absolutely exhausted and it sort of – and Canberra achieves their victory but I think you can just see in watching that little package what an exciting game it was and how it fluctuated between the sides and how – while Balmain could have won the game several times they didn’t. I think this is one of the reasons why it’s such a memorable game, is there’s all these sliding door moments where there’s these what if questions. What if Benny’s field goal hadn’t hit the post? What if Mal Meninga hadn’t managed to ankle tap Neil as he was diving for a try? So those things I think make it a game endlessly possible to talk about and speculate about what might have happened.

So of course we do know what happened. Steve Jackson, and I showed you the Steve Jackson try earlier on and there was also the field goal so in the end The Raiders won the match by 19 to 14. Now of course one of the famous moments which you can talk about in terms of what if is the decision by the coach, Warren Ryan, to replace his two star players, Paul Sironen and Steve Roach, thinking that he needed to pull his big men off and put on some fresh men to defend. Of course it was in that period that they were off the field, they couldn’t go back on that Balmain lost and I don’t think Siro and Blocker agreed with the decision of the coach to do it but that is what happened. This is The Tigers’ bench and you can juxtapose it with The Raiders bench and they were happy with the decision.

So okay, I’ll just show you a few slides now of the aftermath of the game and I think it’s - one of the things when you watch grand finals is you see the emotions written on people’s faces and how important it is for them. So we can see Mal Meninga and Bradley Clyde with Bob Hawke, of course Bob Hawke loved to hand out trophies so he was there in the background. You can see the team celebration with Tim Sheens there in the JJ Gilton Shield and you can see the contrast with how Benny Elias is feeling and how Junior Pearce is feeling. It’s pretty tough to be on the losing side. Yeah, it’s a moment of deep reflection.

So back in Canberra this is of course where the fountains in Canberra ran green and Canberra was a sea of green celebration. At this event in Civic Square you can see Mal Meninga presenting their Winfield trophy to the fans. Over 5,000 fans were there on that day and it’s interesting when you look at this slide ‘cause you wonder why is the trophy wrapped in a towel? Was it because Mal didn’t like tobacco sponsorship and wanted to cover it over? But no, that wasn’t the reason. The night before, after the celebrations they were in an open top car and apparently Laurie dropped the trophy and it cracked the base of the trophy and hence they were hiding that on the day by disguising it in a towel. They had to get emergency repairs to it ‘cause they were due to go to a function at The Lodge and they had to get it fixed up before they went to The Lodge. So that’s why the Winfield Cup has a towel ‘round the bottom of it in this photograph.

This is sort of the coverage in The Canberra Times. There was a big supplement produced after the game with lots of photographs and celebration and interviews with people at the Mawson Club and in various other locations. Again and again people were sort of saying we’ve proved the people in Sydney wrong, Canberra has a soul. Those are the kind of things that the fans were saying so it was a very memorable moment for the people who were there. I gather it was impossible to get into the club and people were everywhere so it was a big moment of celebration.

I do recognise this because as a Parramatta fan I can remember when Parramatta won its first grand final and Parramatta fans of course weren’t as civilised as Raiders’ fans. Their response was to go to Cumberland Oval and burn down the stand so I think the –

Au:      [unclear] 30:24.

G:        I wasn’t there. I deny but I think The Raiders’ fans behaved very well and were very happy so – of course I think the significance of this is that this success on the sporting field added a new dimension to Canberra’s identity and it changed how Canberrans felt about themselves and it also changed how people felt about Canberra ‘cause Canberra had proved they could do it. I think it also changed Sydney as well like I know I’ve been talking about Canberra but it did change Sydney ‘cause 1989 was the first occasion that a team from outside Sydney had won the premiership so the implications of a national expansion of the game had really begun to sunk in. The competition no longer belonged to Sydney and The Raiders’ victory was a harbinger of things that would come as the competition continued to expand.

Canberra would win a couple more competitions, Raiders in ’89 and Raiders in ’90 and of course after that Brisbane would win competitions and Melbourne would win competitions so that was a big difference for Sydney. Within Canberra the success of The Raiders attracted political support so people like Ros Kelly, the Senator from Canberra, would be seen in the dressing rooms and of course Bob Hawke also liked to frequent the dressing rooms so it was a big moment.

As I mentioned at the beginning of my talk though this peak of success of rugby league where very good numbers are attending the game, lots of people are watching it on television. It was also a moment where this success meant that it would not be long before the big media moguls would start wrestling for control of the game and of course that was to happen in the ‘90s and that was the Super League war which was coming ’round the corner. Of course The Raiders were one of the teams who decided to join the Super League.

If you’re interested in rugby league history there’s some really interesting things happening these days. While a lot of rugby league history is perhaps nostalgia there’s some good books and things being written. David Heaton’s about to release a book on the history of The Raiders. There’s a great website called Rugby League Project which has all the statistical records of the game and there’s also a wonderful podcast called the Rugby League Digest which discusses the history of the game in great detail run by a guy from New South Wales State Library. So there’s some really interesting things happening in rugby league history so if you’re interested I’d encourage you to follow up those things.

As I do my conclusion I’ll leave up a slide of the Viking clap being done at Bruce Stadium because The Raiders are still very important for the Canberra community. So I’ll just wrap it up now. The 1989 grand final provided a focus for community pride in a much maligned capital. For many Canberrans the outpouring of lime green pride which both preceded and followed the game forever disproved the idea that Canberra was a city without a soul. The victory of The Raiders was also important whilst owning the struggle between rugby league and Australian Rules Football because when The Raiders moved in here they managed to capture this little bit of New South Wales and the capital as rugby league fans. It was also an important milestone on the road to what we now know of as the national rugby league.

In Joseph Campbell’s work on comparative mythology, The Hero with a Thousand Faces, the book which has become almost a textbook for Hollywood screenwriters, Campbell argues that the mythological stories around the world follow the same basic narrative pattern and I’ll give you his little definition. The hero ventures forth from the world of common day into a region of supernatural wonder. Fabulous forces are there encountered and a decisive victory is won. The hero comes back from his mysterious adventure with the power to bestow boons of his fellow man.

I think this quote is a good description of The Raiders’ march from being a minor rugby league team to premiers. The victory of the 1989 grand final was genuinely heroic. I can’t think of a better description of the 1980s New South Wales rugby league competition as a region of supernatural wonder. What could be more decisive than winning the premiership and returning to your home and presenting the trophy to the adoring fans of Canberra in Queanbeyan?

So I'm being a bit facetious there invoking Joseph Campbell but I do think that there’s a sense why this story is so powerful and why we still talk about it today. The victory of The Raiders helped Canberra to develop a shared sense of identity, personalities such as Mal Meninga, Ricky Stuart, Laurie Daly provided a set of heroes to populate the city’s collective imagination. At a time that Canberra had just achieved self-government The Raiders became an important resource for building a sense of community. They helped to unite Canberra and Queanbeyan. Thank you.


A:        Well we do have some time for a few questions from the audience. Now we’re livestreaming this event on the National Library’s Facebook page and the recording will be made available afterwards for those who couldn’t join us today. So if you do have a question could you please wait for the microphone to come to you before you ask the question to ensure that it gets picked up by the sound feed? So we got one there.

Au:      Gary Williams. Thank you, Doctor, it was very informative. A little disappointing though was the start of The Raiders. I think credit should have been given to Les McIntyre.

G:        Absolutely.

Au:      And Jonny Ferner.

G:        Yes, there’s -

Au:      And you may know, if I may continue, Jonny’s got dementia and is not travelling that well.

G:        I’m sorry to hear that.

Au:      Okay. That’s my only comment.

G:        The story of the start of The Raiders is a really important one and I think David in his book is looking in that in detail and it – within the confines of the amount of time I had today I couldn’t but I think it’s an amazing achievement that Queanbeyan Leagues Club got a team into the national competition. There’s many leagues clubs around the country who’ve tried to do this and very few have succeeded so it really speaks well of the people behind that drive back in 1981.

Au:      Thank you. I’d like to ask Don Fern about tickets but I won’t. Just one point I’d like to make and that is I think The Raiders have shown a lot of initiative right through in the sense that they took a lot of Queenslanders and brought them down and had a lot of success. I think to some sense Tim Sheens’ brought Fiji in and was probably the first to bring Polynesians into the game. In recent times of course, the English that they brought across. It seems to me that they have been a very innovative club from the very start and that’s been possibly one of the major successes.

G:        Yeah, absolutely and I was talking to somebody yesterday who joked to me that Canberra was actually a Queensland team and it’s partly true. That initial group of talent from Queensland were extremely important to The Raiders and it’s difficult to get players to move from Sydney but other regions were prepared to play for The Raiders and they made that into a real strength of the club and I think a lot of players enjoyed the lifestyle in Canberra, a bit quieter than perhaps the lifestyle in Sydney where they were much more in the media’s attention. I think that plays out for Melbourne as well, that you can see the players perhaps have a better lifestyle in a city like that.

Au:      What was the origin of the Viking clap? I was a disaffected Raiders fan for a little while there after the Super League bit but I’ve been fascinated watching that on television.

G:        I actually don’t know how it started, I don’t know if there’s somebody here who knows?

Au:      Iceland soccer team.

G:        Iceland soccer team.

Au:      Did you want me to answer that? I can answer that if you want.

G:        Yes.

Au:      So about three years ago we went over to Seattle Seahawks and they had a similar start to their game where they’d invite an ex-player or a celebrity to start – not a horn but start this big drum. Then if you remember there was a soccer team that went well in the World Cup and they were the Icelandic soccer team and so it was a combination of both of those and we copied the Icelandic soccer team who did the Viking clap. We’re Vikings, of course, we tried it one day, not sure whether people would stand up or not, not sure that it would last the second week or the third week but thankfully Canberrans got behind it and it’s a very iconic game day celebration now. So it was a copy of the Icelandic soccer team and a bit of what we saw at Seattle.

A:        Alright well we’ve run out of time but I hope you’ve enjoyed this lunchtime expedition talk. I’m not even going to talk about Friday night except to say that if we don’t fix up our defence, and I’m looking at you, Adam Riddles, that we’ll be 70,000 doing the Viking clap on the big game. Finally as Guy mentioned don’t forget the [unclear] 40:49 bookshop is offering a 10% pre-order discount on David Heaton’s book that you just saw, Absolutely Bleeding Green, The Raiders’ Story for orders placed today.

So thank you for attending today’s lecture and we hope to see you back at the Library soon. Go The Bunnies.


End of recording