Papers of Charles Duguid (1884-1986)
||Duguid, Charles, 1884-1986
||Papers of Charles Duguid
||1.76 m. (11 boxes)
Available for research. Not for loan.
This collection was donated to the Library by Charles Duguid in 1975.
The manuscript of Duguids autobiography, Doctor and the
Aborigines, was presented by Duguids daughter, Mrs Rosemary Douglas,
The collection comprises correspondence, diaries, slides, reports,
notes, texts of speeches, the manuscript of Duguids autobiography,
printed material, newspaper cuttings and cuttings books.
The papers relate to Duguids work with the Australian Aborigines,
and his involvement in various organizations, such as the Aborigines
Advancement League of South Australia. They document the development of the
Ernabella Mission in the Musgrave Ranges and the use made of the Smith of
Dunesk Bequest. The bulk of the collection covers the period between 1930 and
1960, when Duguid was campaigning most actively for Aboriginal rights. The
later correspondence (1960-74) consists mainly of congratulatory notes and
telegrams on Duguids 80th and 90th birthdays, and on his award of the
Slides (Series 5) are held in the Pictorial Section.
The son of a schoolteacher, Charles Duguid was born at Saltcoasts,
Scotland on 6th April 1884. He attended the Ardrossan Academy High School of
Glasgow and studied medicine at Glasgow University.
As well as teaching at Glasgow University, Duguid worked as a doctor in
the Glasgow slums. In 1911 he signed on as ships surgeon for a voyage to
and from Australia. This experience led him to emigrate to Australia in 1912.
He practised as a general practitioner in Nhill, Victoria, where he
married his first wife, Irene Young. They had one son, Charlie. In 1914 Duguid
moved to Adelaide and began practising as a gynaecologist and obstetrician.
In February 1917 Duguid sailed for Egypt as a volunteer medical officer
with the Light Horse Brigade. He returned to Scotland in 1919 for post-graduate
study and to sit for a surgical fellowship at Glasgow. In the following years
he made other overseas study tours.
Irene Duguid died in 1927. In 1930 Charles Duguid married Phyllis Lade,
the senior English mistress at the Presbyterian Girls College in
Adelaide. They had a son, Andrew, and a daughter, Rosemary.
Duguid first became interested in the plight of Australian Aborigines in
1928, when a white man was murdered by Aborigines at Landers Creek. The police
shot 17 Aborigines in their hunt for the murderer. From this time on Duguid
became an unrelenting battler for Aboriginal rights. His wife founded the
Aboriginal Advancement League in 1935 and Duguid served as President in 1935,
and again from 1951 to 1961. In 1937 he helped to found the Ernabella Mission
in the Musgrave Ranges of South Australia. He lectured and spoke in England and
New Zealand, as well as Australia, about the conditions of the Australian
Aborigines and he made many expeditions into the inland to the various
Aboriginal settlements. He was active in other organizations concerned with
Aboriginal rights, such as the Council for Aboriginal Rights and the
Association for the Protection of Native Races.
Duguid helped found the English Speaking Union, and chaired it in 1932.
In 1935 he was elected Moderator of the Presbyterian Church of South Australia.
He served as President of the District and Bush Nursing Society of South
Australia in 1954.
In 1970 Duguid was awarded the O.B.E. for his work for Australian
Aborigines. In 1974 he received the Anisfield-Wolf Award in Race Relations, for
his autobiography Doctor and the Aborigines. Other publications
include Desert trail, Future of Aborigines in Australia,
Aborigines of Darwin and the Tropic North, Macewen of Glasgow and
No dying race.
Duguid died in Adelaide on 5 December 1986, at the age of 102. He was
buried at Ernabella.
1 General correspondence, 1918-74
2 Diaries, 1934-51
3 Press cuttings, 1933-72
4 Printed material, 1900-73
5 Slides, 1936-49
6 Speeches and statements
7 Published works of Duguid
8 Organisational records, 1932-69
9 Smith of Dunesk Bequest
10 Ernabella Mission, 1935-1965
11 Papers of Mary Bennett
12 Miscellaneous notes
13 Manuscript of autobiography
Series 1 General Correspondence, 191874
This series comprises personal correspondence from 1918 to 1974. It is
arranged chronologically with undated items placed last. Letters relating to
particular subjects have been placed in their relevant subject series. Any
enclosures sent by the correspondence are filed with the covering letters.
Some of the correspondence is with various organizations, including the
Aborigines Advancement League, Anti-Slavery Society, Student Christian
Movement, United Nations Association of Australia, National Union of Australian
University Students, Council for Aboriginal Rights, Aborigines Protection
League and the Australian Inland Mission.
The other main correspondents are Pastor F.W. Albrecht, R. M. Trudiner,
E. W. P. Chinnery, Margaret Bain, Reverend P. B. Clayton, H. R. Balfour,
Professor Gilbert Murray, Professor A. P. Elkin, Donald Thomson, Sir Paul
Hasluck, G. F. Davis, Sir Mark Oliphant, C. P. Mountford and the Reverend
William Morley. A small number of letters from Duguids wife, Phyllis, are
included in this series.
The correspondence for 1971, 1964 and 1974 consists of a large number of
telegrams and congratulatory notes on the occasions of Duguids O.B.O.
award (1971) and his 80th and 90th birthdays.
Series 2 Diaries, 1934-51
This series comprises five diaries kept by Duguid for the years 1934,
1935, 1936, 1936-49 and 1951. His diary relating to Ernabella Mission (1946)
has been placed in Series 10.
Series 3 Press Cuttings
This series comprises loose clippings (from magazines and newspapers)
and newspaper cutting books. The loose clippings are arranged at the beginning
of the series with the cuttings books at the end.
Most of the cuttings relate to the Aborigines, but they also contain
information extracted from the Medical Journal of Australia and
information on the Light Horse Memorial in Adelaide. The subjects relating to
Aborigines include the Australian Inland Mission and the Flying Doctor Service.
Many clippings refer to Duguid and his involvement both with the Presbyterian
Church and with the Aboriginal cause. Several clippings of his articles and
letters to the editor are included.
Other newspaper cuttings have been placed in their relevant subject
Series 4 Printed material, 1900-73
This series contains books, newspapers and journals. These publications
are listed in Appendix I.
As well as the material listed in the Appendix, the series contains
copies of a Licence to employ Aborigines and the Limited
exemption from the provisions of the Aborigines Act of 1934-1939. The
subjects covered by the various publications include Presbyterianism in
Australia, Aborigines, anti-conscription, economics, socialism and
Books and pamphlets written by Duguid may be found in Series 7 while his
published speeches are in Series 6. Other printed items have been placed in
their relevant subject series.
Series 5 Slides, 1936-49
This series comprises two boxes of slides (housed in the Pictorial
Section). The first box of slides is marked 1936-1939. The slides
refer to a patrol made by Duguid in 1936 in the area around Haast Bluff. The
first 26 slides refer to this patrol, while the following 24 deal with the
Petermann Patrol of 1939.
The second box of slides relates to the Ernabella Mission in 1949. It
contains 40 slides of landscapes, shearing activities, teaching activities and
Series 6 Speeches and statements
This series comprises the texts of Duguids speeches and written
statements, as well as notes for speeches. The series also includes broadcasts,
printed copies of addresses, correspondence relating to various ABC and BBC
broadcasts and cards advertising some of the lectures.
The titles of Duguids speeches are listed in Appendix II. The
subjects include Aborigines, medicine and religion.
Duguid gave many speeches over the years at a variety of venues. He also
composed a large number of statements. These statements are divided into texts
and notes. The notes have been divided, by Duguid, into the following subject
areas: alcohol and Aborigines; assimilation; pidgin English; cooperatives;
discrimination; education; employment and wages; health; housing; intelligence;
missions; Namatjira; nutrition; police as protectors; and reserves.
Series 7 Published works of Duguid
This series comprises correspondence, newspaper clippings, copies of
reviews and copies of four of Duguids publications. The material is
arranged in roughly chronological order, according to date of publication. The
correspondence relating to each publication is also arranged
The pamphlets contained in this series are From Suez to Gaza with
the Light Horse; The rocket range, Australian Aborigines and war
and The Aborigines of Darwin and the Tropic North.
A copy of the book Desert trail, by Scottys
Brother, the pseudonym used by Duguid, is also included in this series.
Material related to this publication includes a copyright certificate and
correspondence, mainly congratulatory.
The series also includes reviews and correspondence relating to another
of Duguids book No dying race (1963), material concerned with
Duguids autobiography, correspondence and reviews, as well as a list of
people referred to in the book. The correspondence, again, is mainly
congratulatory, with some business letters from the publishers.
Several of Duguids speeches were printed. These have been placed
in Series 6.
Series 8 Organisational records, 1932-69
Duguid was involved, often in an official capacity, in a variety of
organisations. This series contains the minutes, reports, deputations,
petitions, circulars and constitutions of such organisations. The material is
arranged in roughly chronological order under each organisation.
The organizations and material includes the 26th Annual Report (1937)
and a petition (1935) of the Association for the Protection of Native Races; a
statement by Paul Hasluck on a report of the Anti-Slavery Society (1956);
reports and statements regarding the Lollyleges murder case (1940). There is
some material regarding Section 14 of the 1953 Police Offences Act, including
petitions and a deputation from a group of five organizations asking for its
repeal. Other documents include a policy statement and the constitution of the
Council for Aboriginal Rights (Victoria) and newsletters or circulars of the
Finke River Mission, Australian Aerial Medical Services and the Aborigines
There are small amounts of material from the following organizations:
Federal Council for Aborigines Advancement, Committee on Human Rights of the
United Nations of Australia, South Australian Aborigines Scholarship Committee
of the National Union of Australian University Students, Alice Springs Army
Native Labour Unit, Fullerton Girls Home, Australian Student Christian
Movement, English Speaking Union, Association for the Protection of Native
Races and the District and Bush Nursing Society.
Finally, there is a large amount of material from the Board of Missions
and the South Australian State Assembly of the Presbyterian Church. They
include minutes, statements of receipts and payments, and circulars. There are
also several reports on such subjects as the Kunmunya Mission, the natives of
the Musgrave Ranges, and the Moola Bulla Government Native Station.
Correspondence relating to these organizations is arranged in Series
Series 9 Smith of Dunesk Bequest, 1935-62
Duguid became involved with the Smith of Dunesk Bequest when he
attempted to raise funds for the establishment of Ernabella Mission in 1937.
Mrs Henrietta Smith of Scotland had purchased land in South Australia, three
years after its foundation, and she donated the proceeds to the Presbyterian
Church in Australia, with the specific purpose of helping the Aborigines.
However, the money was not used as she had intended and subsequent events
obscured the purpose of the bequest. Duguid cleared up much of the speculation
regarding the bequest and was able to divert some of the money to Ernabella
Mission, thus fulfilling the original purpose of the bequest.
The series consists of correspondence, committee reports and printed
material, arranged in that order. The correspondence, which is arranged
chronologically, dates from 1935 to 1962. The principal correspondent is J.
McDonald Webster of the Overseas Department of the Church of Scotlands
Committee on Colonial Churches. Also included are copies of nineteenth century
reports and correspondence (1871-93) between Jemima Russell and the Reverend
George Taplin and others about the bequest.
The series also contains reports of the above Committee, as well as
minutes, figures on receipts, expenditure, and net income and distribution.
The printed material in this series includes a pamphlet entitled
Brief account of Smith of Dunesk, drawn up by Phyllis Duguid. Also
included are the Minutes of the Proceedings of the Presbyterian Church of South
Australia, with the passages relevant to the Smith of Dunesk Request marked by
Series 10 Ernabella Mission, 1935-65
Duguid, in association with the Presbyterian Board of Missions, founded
the Ernabella Mission to the Pitjantjatjara tribe in the Musgrave Ranges in
1937. The series has been divided into nine subseries; subseries 1-5 are form
divisions, while series 6-9 are subject subdivisions.
Subseries 1: Correspondence, 1935-65, is arranged chronologically with
undated items placed last. The subjects covered including donations, the
Adelaide appeal, land and wages. There are several letters from R. Trudiner at
Subseries 2: Diary, 1946, kept by Duguid at Ernabella.
Subseries 3: Printed material, consisting of a pamphlet entitled
Ernabella 1940 and a number of Ernabella newsletters.
Subseries 4: Cuttings, comprises general cuttings relating to the
Mission and its work, and to the Aboriginal people of the area.
Subseries 5: Reports, 1937-59, comprising reports of the Ernabella
Mission to the Presbyterian Board of Missions. These reports include statements
of expenditure and are arranged chronologically.
Subseries 6: Origins and Development. This subseries comprises
clippings, newsheets, minutes of meetings, appeals for funds and a list of
Subseries 7: Ernabella School. This subseries is made up of
correspondence, student exercise books, photographs, clippings, pamphlets,
copies of the school magazine Anapalaku, Tjakulpa Iyantja. The
correspondence consists mainly of letters from children to Duguid and his wife.
The clippings and pamphlets deal with the educational system and the Erabella
Subseries 8: Medical papers. Comprises correspondence, reports,
circulars, clippings and notes made by Duguid. They relate to the Aborigines of
the Ernabella Mission.
Subseries 9: Miscellaneous papers, covers the subjects of wages,
education and general policy as they relate to Ernabella. Slide material on
Ernabella has been placed in series 5.
Series 11 Papers of Mary Bennett, 1927-61
This series comprises a variety of papers that were sent to Duguid by
Mary Bennett, the Western Australian teacher and advocate of Aboriginal rights,
before her death in 1961.
The series includes correspondence, newspaper clippings, copies of
newspaper articles, copies of and extracts from acts, regulations,
parliamentary debates and government reports, and evidence given before Royal
Commissions and official inquiries. The papers deal with Aborigines and their
problems in Western Australia and in particular there is a large amount of
material which Bennett presented as evidence to the Royal Commission on the
condition and treatment of Aborigines in 1934. There are a few letters from
Bennett to Duguid. The material is arranged roughly in chronological order.
Series 12 Miscellaneous notes
Grouped into this series are roneoed and typewritten papers and a
variety of handwritten notes. Some of them were given to Duguid by Pastor F.W.
Albrecht of the Hermannsburg Mission in Central Australia.
The topics covered include Aboriginal workers in Queensland and Western
Australia, Moona Bulla, the Presbyterian Church in Australia, social services
legislation as it affected Aborigines, fostering Aboriginal children, aspects
of mission work among Aborigines, the Hermannsburg congregation, citizenship
for Aborigines, Albert Namatjira, catering, the Welfare Branches basic ration
scale for settlements, aspects of hospital welfare, childbirth, summary of
Duguids Moderational year (1935), Aboriginal children I have
met, natives of the West Coast of South Australia, tariffs, nutrition,
peace and human rights for Aborigines.
Series 13 Manuscript of autobiography
Duguids autobiography Doctor and the Aborigines was
published in Adelaide by Rigby in 1973. This series contains the draft of the
book, mostly typescript but including several handwritten pages.
Publications in Series 4
Balfour, R. G. Presbyterianism in the colonies
Edinburgh, MacNiven & Wallace, 1900
Fiddian, J. R. Robert Mitchell of the inland
Melbourne, Ramsay, 1931
Jones, Stuart Duncan
The soul of Czechoslovakia
London, Herbert Barber, 1941
Kenny, JamesNewer poems, 1936-1938
Melbourne, Lothian, 1939
McKellar, J.Maurice Blackburn and the struggle for freedom
Melbourne, Challenge Pr., 1945
Philoren Money must go
ABC Weekly, November-December 1943
The Advertiser (Adelaide), November 1972
Airdoctor (Adelaide), September 1947
Australian Intercollegian (Adelaide), 50 (3) 1 May 1947
Australian Presbyterian Life (Melbourne), April/May 1973
Landmark (London), 16 (2) February 1934
The Link (Melbourne), April 1953, October 1953, June 1968
Medical Journal of Australia (Melbourne)
Vol. II, no. 118, October 1913
Vol. I, no. 8, August 1914
Vol. II, no.2, July 1922
Vol. II, no 22, December 1922
Vol., no. 18, November 1923
Vol. II, no. 21, November 1923
Vol. II, no. 23, December 1923
Supplements to February 1924 and April 1924
Vol. II, August 1926
Vol. I, February 1931
Vol. I, no. 20, May 1933
The Messenger (Melbourne), 10 (26), December 1936
10 (28), January 1937; 10 (29), January 1937
10 (31), January 10 (34), February 1937
Missionary Chronicle (Melbourne), 29 (6), June 1935
The News (Adelaide), December 1934; December 1934; December
People 1 (25) February 1951
Presbyterian Banner (Adelaide), 40 (4), April 1935
The Real Australian (Sydney), no. 90, July 1945
The Socialist (Sydney), November 1951
Southern Socialist Review (Melbourne), new series no. 31,
Spirit of Czechoslovakia (London), 3 (1- 3) February 1942; 3 (7
& 8) July 1942 6 (1), 1945
Student World (Geneva), 46 (4), 4th quarter 1953.
Venture (Adelaide), Vol. 1 2, no. 2, February 1940.
Workers Literature Board (Melbourne) publications
(i) Call for a socialist league (June 1944 ?)
(ii) The referendum : as a working class issue (July 1944
(iii) U.S. post-war plans (March 1944 ?)
(iv) The new order is here; it is debt finance and
World Dominion and World Today (New York), May/June 1954.
Speeches by Duguid in Series 6
(a) Addresses printed
- The Aborigines of Australia.
- The central Aborigines reserve.
- The future of the Aborigines in Australia.
- World peace at a price world law.
(b) Addresses text titles
- Aborigines and alcohol.
- The Aborigines gift to us.
- The Aborigines of Australia (2 speeches)
- The Aborigines of Australia and their future.
- The acme of physical fitness.
- Acting against discrimination.
- The Australian Aborigines.
- Behind Gods back.
- A call to youth.
- Can the Aborigine of Australia became an educated man?
- The Church and Post World War.
- Clash of cultures in Central Australia.
- The elimination and prevention of venereal disease.
- The far North West of South Australia tribal Aborigines.
- Full blood mothers and their half caste children.
- Health under socialism.
- The ideal Christian mission to the Aborigines.
- Is the English Speaking Union worthwhile?
- The message of George Matheson.
- Modern medical opinion on alcohol.
- Rise of democracy in Britain, or , British politics and the 1945
- Scotland most democratic in Empire not in Europe.
- Speech for Aborigines Sunday.
- Speech at Melbourne Town Hall, June 1951
- Violet Day Memorial address.
- 1934 Patrol along and across Petermen Rangers.
(c) Broadcasts printed
- The Aborigines of Australia.
- Aborigines Sunday ABC Guest of Honour.
(d) Broadcasts ABC and BBC
- Aborigines children I have met
- The Aborigines hopes of a future before the war and now. The
impact with the White People.
- Aborigines place in present day Australia.
- Housing and its problems.
- The native on the edge of our civilization.
- S.Y.M. Patrol.
- Tribal natives and their customs.
- What we are doing to help Aborigines fit into our national life.
|| Clippings book
|| Clippings books
|| Printed Material
||1 folder of photographs
Revised September 2001