This module includes material that supports students working towards the Achievement Standards for the Australian Curriculum: History 7–10: Year 8 learning area.

  • Students describe the historical significance of the periods between the ancient and modern past.
  • They explain the causes and effects of events, developments, turning points or challenges in Medieval, Renaissance, or pre-modern Europe, or in the societies connected to empires or expansions, or the societies of the Asia–Pacific world during these periods.
  • They describe the social, religious, cultural, economic, environmental and/or political aspects related to the changes and continuities in a society or a historical period.
  • Students describe the role of significant individuals, groups and institutions connected to the societies of these periods and their influences on historical events.
  • They develop questions about the past to inform historical inquiry.
  • They locate and identify a range of primary and secondary sources as evidence in historical inquiry.
  • Students describe the origin, content, and context of sources, and explain the purpose of primary and secondary sources.
  • They compare sources to explain the accuracy, usefulness and reliability of sources as evidence.
  • They sequence events and developments to explain causes and effects, and patterns of continuity and change across societies and time periods.
  • Students describe perspectives, attitudes and values of the past, and suggest reasons for different points of view.
  • They explain historical interpretations about significant events and people.
  • They use historical knowledge, concepts, terms and references to evidence from sources to create descriptions, explanations, and historical arguments.

This module includes material that supports the teaching of Australian Curriculum: History 7-10: Year 8 learning area – Medieval Europe and the modern world.

The transformation of the ancient world to the early modern world, from the decline of the Roman Empire in western Europe through Medieval, Renaissance, or pre-modern Europe. AC9HH8K01


  • identifying the key events that have shaped the modern era, such as the decline of ancient empires and societies; the spread of Christianity in Europe; the spread of Islam through the Arab world, Mediterranean coast, Egypt, North Africa and Persia; the development of the feudal system; the growth of towns and cities; trade; the migration of peoples and the emergence of new ideas
  • describing the connection between key events or developments of this period to modern-day life, such as religious holidays and political systems; for example, the expansion of the Ottoman Empire, the Magna Carta, and the Westminster system
  • investigating the emergence of ideas about the world such as those formed during the Renaissance, and the place of significant individuals and people that caused change
  • explaining the historical significance of selected key events such as the conversion to Christianity of the Emperor Constantine in 312 CE and the invasion of England by William the Conqueror in 1066

The roles and relationships of different groups in Medieval, Renaissance, or pre-modern Europe.AC9HH8K02


  • describing the structure of feudal society, including the role and responsibilities of the king, nobles, church, knights, peasants, and women and men
  • describing key changes of life in the late Medieval period such as the spread of literacy and the development of new ways to disseminate ideas through schools and universities, scientific academies, debating societies, literary salons, coffee houses, and the reach of printed books, journals, and pamphlets

A significant event, development, turning point or challenge that contributed to continuity and change in Medieval, Renaissance, or pre-modern Europe AC9HH8K03


  • examining the nature of illuminated manuscripts and recognising that the Medieval manuscripts of monastic scribes contributed to the survival of many ancient Greek, Roman and Arab literary texts

The primary curriculum focus for this module is History 7–10 – Year 8; however, the content can support several other learning areas throughout the Australian Curriculum.