Thomas Rowlandson (1756–1827), Convicts embarking for Botany Bay 180-?, nla.obj-135232630
A round figure of 162,000 can be taken as a good approximation for all convict arrivals between 1788 and 1868, when the last shipment went to Western Australia.
The Australian Government webpage on Convicts and the British colonies in Australia provides a brief description of the convict system.
There are a number of indexes and records of convicts available on the internet, you can find a list of these in our Family History research guide.
If you need further information there are several good websites devoted to convict matters, including:
- Convicts to Australia - a guide to researching your convict ancestors.
- Convicts Australia - indexes and links.
- Convicts - a page of recommended links on convicts.