Thomas Rowlandson (1756–1827), Convicts embarking for Botany Bay 180-?, nla.obj-135232630
A round figure of 162,000 can be taken as a good approximation for all convict arrivals between 1788 and 1868, when the last shipment went to Western Australia.
Our research guide on convicts has plenty of information including trial records, the prison hulks, transportation and arrival in Australia. It also includes links to other guides and web pages about convicts, especially if you're trying to do family history.
If you need further information there are several good websites devoted to convict matters, including:
- Convicts to Australia - a guide to researching your convict ancestors.
- Convicts in Van Diemen's Land - a guide from Libraries Tasmania.
- Convicts - a collection of guides and indexes from the State Archives & Records of New South Wales.
There have also been numerous books published on convicts and the convict system - try searching the National Library catalogue or Trove to find these resources.
Listen to Guy Hansen, Director of Exhibitions, examine one of the oldest cartoons in the Library's collection, 'Convict uprising at Castle Hill (1804)'.