This glossary includes words highlighted in bold throughout the module. Unless otherwise indicated, definitions and glossary entries come from The Maquarie Dictionary.

Definitions have been selected for best fit to context, some entries have multiple meanings in different applications.

The Admiralty
The officials or the department of state having charge of naval affairs.

Capable, without much modification, of producing crops by means of plowing

Astronomer Royal
The title Astronomer Royal is an honour awarded to an eminent astronomer. He, or she, is expected to advise the Queen on astronomical matters. Because of astronomy’s role in navigation for this sea-faring nation, their work was often entwined with the stories of Britain’s great explorers such as Capt. James Cook and of course the story of longitude and Harrison’s Clocks.
Information from Royal Museums Greenwhich:

The science of plants; the branch of biology that deals with plant life.

1. Government by administrative officials organised into departments, bureaus, etc.

2. Excessive red tape and unnecessary official procedures in any system of government or administration.

Canton System
The Canton system was a trading pattern that developed between Chinese and foreign merchants, especially British, in the South China trading city of Guangzhou (Canton) from the 17th to the 19th century. The major characteristics of the system developed between 1760 and 1842, when all foreign trade coming into China was confined to Canton and the foreign traders entering the city were subject to a series of regulations by the Chinese government.
Information from: Encyclopaedia Britannica:

1.The wealth, whether in money or property, owned or employed in business by an individual, firm, etc.

2.An accumulated stock of such wealth.

3.Any form of wealth employed or capable of being employed in the production of more wealth.

The production of maps, including construction of projections, design, compilation, drafting, and reproduction.

To yield or formally resign and surrender to another; make over, as by treaty: to cede territory.

1. A written document, granted by a sovereign or legislature giving privileges, rights, the benefit of a new invention, a peerage, etc.

2. A written grant by a sovereign power creating or incorporating a borough, university, company or a corporation, as the royal charters granted to establish British colonies in America.

3. Founded, granted, or protected by a charter.

To sail round; make the circuit of by navigation: he circumnavigated the world.

Civil disobedience
A refusal, usually on political grounds, to obey laws, pay taxes, etc.

Cohong, Chinese (Pinyin) gonghang or (Wade-Giles romanization) kung-hang, also called hong or cong-hong, the guild of Chinese merchants authorized by the central government to trade with Western merchants at Guangzhou (Canton) prior to the first Opium War (1839–42).
Information from: Encyclopaedia Britannica:  

The branch of zoology dealing with the shells of molluscs.

A system of ethics based on the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius who stressed treating others as one would wish to be treated, loyalty, intelligence, and the fullest development of the individual in the five chief relationships of life: ruler and subject, father and son, elder and younger brother, husband and wife, friend and friend.

 To come together; assemble, usually for some public purpose.


1.  The act of degrading.

2.  The state of being degraded.

3. Physical Geography the general lowering of the surface of the land by erosive processes, especially by the removal of material through erosion.

4. Chemistry the breakdown of a complex compound into simple ones.


1. A decree issued by a sovereign or other authority.

2. Any authoritative proclamation or command.

Affecting at the same time a large number of people in a locality, and spreading from person to person, as a disease not permanently prevalent there.

1. To state the equality of or between; put in the form of an equation.
2. To regard, treat, or represent as equivalent.

The final section of a document, which may include a formulaic sentence of appreciation, and the attestation of those responsible for the document (the author, the writer, or the countersigner, and any witnesses to the enactment or the subscription).

Example of formulaic appreciation include 'sincerely', 'your humble servant', or 'yours truly'. The attestation is the most essential part of the eschatocol.

Information from Society of American Archivists:

Free trade agreement
1.  Trade between different countries, free from governmental restrictions, such as protective duties, import quotas, etc.

2.  The system, principles, or maintenance of such trade.

The science dealing with water on the land, or under the earth's surface, its properties, laws, geographical distribution, etc.

The branch of zoology that deals with fishes.

 To come or be between, as in place, time, or a series.


One of a Mongolian people inhabiting Manchuria, who conquered China in the 17th century

1. connected with the sea in relation to navigation, shipping, etc.: maritime law.

2.  of or relating to the sea.

Relating to meteorology, or to phenomena of the atmosphere or weather.

Mission Civilsatrice
(French) Civilising Mission
As the primary rationalisation for colonialism, the "civilizing mission" signified France's attempt to convert its colonial subjects into French people. Whereas the British tended to reject the notion that an Indian, for example, might become British. There was also a moral component to the civilizing mission, in that some French held that it was their duty as a more enlightened people to elevate those ignorant to the ways of the Western world.

Information sourced from 
Edited for clarity and length

The proportion of sickness in a locality:

The relative frequency of death, or death rate, as in a district or community.

An indefinitely great number: a myriad of stars.

The branch of physical geography dealing with the ocean.

1.A misalignment in the comparison of two locations due to the relative position of the observer.

2.Heliocentric parallax: the apparent displacement of a heavenly body due to its being observed from the earth instead of from the sun.

Forgiveness of an offence or offender.

1.  Someone who supports with their patronage a shop, hotel, or the like.

2.  A protector or supporter, as of a person, cause, institution, art, or enterprise.

Plantago Media, Hoary Plantain
Plantago media, known as the hoary plantain, is a species of flowering plant in the plantain family Plantaginaceae. It is native to central and western Europe, including Great Britain and introduced to parts of the north-east United States
Information From Wikipedia:
For further information: Emorsgate Seeds:

To assume without proof, or as self-evident; take for granted.

1. An introductory statement; a preface; an introduction.

2. The introductory part of a statute, deed, or the like, stating the reasons and intent of what follows.

A royal domain; kingdom: the realm of England.

1.  To renounce or surrender (a possession, right, etc.).

2.  To give up; put aside or desist from: to relinquish a plan.

3.  To let go: to relinquish one's hold.

To break away from or rise against constituted authority, as by open rebellion; cast off allegiance or subjection to those in authority; rebel; mutiny.

A disease marked by swollen and bleeding gums, livid spots on the skin, prostration, etc., due to a diet lacking in vitamin C.

1.  Placed in or belonging to a lower order or rank.

2.  Of lesser importance; secondary.

3.  Subject to or under the authority of a superior.

4.  Subservient.

5.  Dependent.

1.  Classification, especially in relation to its principles or laws.

2.  That department of science, or of a particular science, which deals with classification.

The systematic study of animals or the animal kingdom.